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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum.

Primary syphilis

Secondary syphilis

Syphilis cannot be contracted through toilet seats, daily activities, hot tubs, or sharing eating utensils or clothing.
Syphilis is a bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact. The disease starts as a painless sore on your genitals, mouth or another part of your body. If untreated, syphilis can damage your heart and brain.
Syphilis progresses in stages and can lead to serious complications or death. Having syphilis also makes you more vulnerable to HIV. When caught early, syphilis can be cured with antibiotics.


Syphilis develops in four stages, and symptoms vary with each stage. But the stages may overlap, and symptoms don't always occur in the same order. You may be infected with syphilis and not notice any symptoms for years.

Primary syphilis

These signs may occur from 10 days to three months after exposure:

A small, firm, painless sore (chancre).
The sore will heal without treatment, but the syphilis infection remains. In some people, syphilis then moves to the secondary stage.

Secondary syphilis

The signs and symptoms of secondary syphilis begin two to 10 weeks after the chancre appears and may include:

Skin rash, often appearing as rough, red or reddish-brown, penny-sized sores, over any area of your body, including your palms and soles
Fatigue and a vague feeling of discomfort
Soreness and aching
Swollen lymph glands
Sore throat
Wart-like sores in the mouth or genital area

These signs and symptoms may disappear within a few weeks or repeatedly come and go for as long as a year.

Latent syphilis

If you aren't treated for syphilis, the disease moves from the secondary to the latent (hidden) stage, when you have no symptoms. The latent stage can last for years. Signs and symptoms may never return, or the disease may progress to the tertiary (third) stage.

Tertiary or late syphilis

About 15 to 30 percent of people infected with syphilis who don't get treatment will develop complications known as tertiary, or late, syphilis. In the late stages, the disease may damage your brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones and joints. These problems may occur many years after the original infection.

Some of the signs and symptoms of late syphilis include:

Jerky or uncoordinated muscle movements
Gradual blindness

Congenital syphilis

If you're pregnant, you may pass syphilis to your unborn baby. Blood containing the bacteria reaches the fetus through the placenta, the organ that nourishes the developing baby. This is known as congenital syphilis.

Most infants born with syphilis have no symptoms of the disease. Almost all develop symptoms by 3 months of age, though some children with congenital syphilis show no signs of the disease until after age 2.

Early signs and symptoms, which occur before the age of two, may include:

"Snuffles" (runny nose)
Skin sores
Jaundice — yellow skin
Infection of the umbilical cord
Swollen liver and spleen

If not treated right away, the baby may experience serious problems, including:

Tooth abnormalities
Developmental delays

What is the treatment for syphilis?

Syphilis is treated with various Antibiotics. The amount of reatment depends on the stage of syphilis the patient is in. Pregnant women with a history of allergic reaction to penicillin should undergo penicillin desensitization followed by appropriate penicillin therapy. A baby born with the disease needs daily penicillin treatment for 10 days.

What can be done to prevent the spread of syphilis?

There are number of ways to prevent the spread of syphilis:
• Limit your number of sex partners;
• Use a male or female condom;
• If you think you are infected, avoid sexual contact and visit your local STD clinic, a hospital or your doctor;
• Notify all sexual contacts immediately so they can obtain examination and treatment;
• All pregnant women should receive at least one prenatal blood test for syphilis.

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Chancroid also known as soft chancre is a bacterial disease caused by bacteria called Haemophilus ducreyi that is spread only through sexual contact.


Chancroid is caused by a type of bacteria called Haemophilus ducreyi.


Within 1 to 10 days after getting chancroid, a person will get a small bump in the genitals. Within a few days, these bumps become filled with pus and eventually rupture, leaving painful, open sores in the genital region. These open sores are known as ulcers, and can range from one to three centimeters in diameter.

The ulcer:

• Ranges in size from 1/8 inch to 2 inches across
• Is painful
• Is soft
• Has sharply defined borders
• Has irregular or ragged borders
• Has a base that is covered with a grey or yellowish-grey material
• Has a base that bleeds easily if banged or scraped
About half of infected men have only a single ulcer. Women often have 4 or more ulcers. The ulcers appear in specific locations.
Common locations in men are:
• Foreskin (prepuce)
• Groove behind the head of the penis (coronal sulcus)
• Shaft of the penis
• Head of the penis (glans)
• Opening of the penis (urethral meatus)
• Scrotum

In women the most common location for ulcers is the outer lips of the vagina (labia majora). "Kissing ulcers" may develop. These are ulcers that occur on opposite surfaces of the labia.

Other areas such as the inner vagina lips (labia minora), the area between the genitals and the anus (perineal area), and inner thighs may also be involved. The most common symptoms in women are pain with urination and intercourse.

The ulcer may look like a chancre, the typical sore of primary syphilis.

Approximately half of the people infected with a chancroid will develop enlarged inguinal lymph nodes, the nodes located in the fold between the leg and the lower abdomen.

Half of those who have swelling of the inguinal lymph nodes will progress to a point where the nodes break through the skin, producing draining abscesses.

The swollen lymph nodes and abscesses are often referred to as buboes.


Chancroid is diagnosed by looking at the ulcer(s) and checking for swollen lymph nodes. There are no blood tests for chancroid.


The infection is treated with antibiotics. Large lymph node swellings need to be drained, either with a needle or local surgery.
Chancroids in persons with HIV may take much longer to heal.


Chancroid is a bacterial infection that is spread by sexual contact with an infected person. Avoiding all forms of sexual activity is the only absolute way to prevent a sexually transmitted disease.
However, safe sex behaviors may reduce your risk. The proper use of condoms, either the male or female type, greatly decreases the risk of catching a sexually transmitted disease.
You need to wear the condom from the beginning to the end of each sexual activity.
If you are currently sexually active, or are thinking about becoming sexually active, it is important to become familiar with all of the health risks involved. Unprotected or unsafe sexual practices can dramatically increase your risks of developing a sexually transmitted disease (STD).
Many of these STDs have a number of unpleasant side effects and can lead to severe health complications.

Comparison with Chancre (Syphilitic)

There are many differences and similarities between the conditions syphilitic chancre and chancroid (reference 1 and 2)


• Both originate as pustules at the site of inoculation, and progress to ulcerated lesions
• Both lesions are typically 1-2 cm in diameter
• Both lesions are caused by sexually transmissible organisms
• Both lesions typically appear on the genitals of infected individuals
• Both lesions can present at multiple sites and with multiple lesions


• Chancre is a lesion typical of infection with the bacterium that causes syphilis, Treponema pallidum
• Chancroid is a lesion typical of infection with the bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi
• Chancres are typically painless, whereas chancroid are typically painful
• Chancres are typically non-exudative, whereas chancroid typically have a grey or yellow purulent exudate
• Chancres have a hard (indurated) edge, whereas chancroid have a soft edge.

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Chlamydia Infection
Chlamydia infection is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia is a major infectious cause of human genital disease. Chlamydia infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide.
Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex, and can be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth.
In men, infection of the urethra (urethritis) is usually symptomatic, causing a white discharge from the penis with or without pain on urinating (dysuria).

Occasionally, the conditions spreads to the upper genital tract in women (causing pelvic inflammatory disease) or to the epididymis in men (causing epididymitis). If untreated, chlamydial infections can cause serious reproductive and other health problems with both short-term and long-term consequences.

Signs and symptoms

Genital disease

Chlamydial cervicitis in a female patient characterized by mucopurulent cervical discharge, erythema, and inflammation.

Male patients may develop a white, cloudy or watery discharge (shown) from the tip of the penis.
Chlamydial infection of the neck of the womb (cervicitis) is a sexually transmitted infection which is asymptomatic for about 50-70% of women infected with the disease.

The infection can be passed through vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Of those who have an asymptomatic infection that is not detected by their doctor, approximately half will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a generic term for infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. PID can cause scarring inside the reproductive organs, which can later cause serious complications, including chronic pelvic pain, difficulty becoming pregnant, ectopic (tubal) pregnancy, and other dangerous complications of pregnancy.

Symptoms that may occur include: unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge, pain in the abdomen, painful sexual intercourse (dyspareunia), fever, painful urination or the urge to urinate more frequently than usual (urinary urgency). Low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods. Chlamydial infection of the cervix can spread to the rectum.

Men with signs or symptoms might have a discharge from their penis or a burning sensation when urinating. Men might also have burning and itching around the opening of the penis. Pain and swelling in the testicles are uncommon.

In men, Chlamydia shows symptoms of infectious urethritis (inflammation of the urethra). Symptoms that may occur include: a painful or burning sensation when urinating, an unusual discharge from the penis, swollen or tender testicles, or fever. Discharge, or the purulent is generally less viscous and lighter in color than for gonorrhea. If left untreated, it is possible for Chlamydia in men to spread to the testicles causing epididymitis, which in rare cases can cause sterility if not treated within 6 to 8 weeks. Chlamydia is also a potential cause of prostatitis in men.

Perinatal infections

As many as half of all infants born to mothers with chlamydia will be born with the disease. Chlamydia can affect infants by causing spontaneous abortion; premature birth; conjunctivitis, which may lead to blindness; and pneumonia.


C. trachomatis infection can be effectively cured with various antibiotics once it is detected.

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Genital Wart
Classification and external resources

Severe case of genital warts around the anus

Genital warts (known as condylomata acuminata or venereal warts) may be small, flat, flesh-colored bumps or tiny, cauliflower-like bumps. In men, genital warts can grow on the penis, near the anus, or between the penis and the scrotum. In women, genital warts may grow on the vulva and perineal area, in the vagina and on the cervix (the opening to the uterus or womb). Genital warts vary in size.

Genital warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). There are many kinds of HPV. Not all of them cause genital warts. HPV is associated with cancer of the vulva, anus and penis. However, it's important to note that HPV infection doesn't always lead to cancer.


HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). The most common way to get HPV is by having oral, vaginal or anal sex with someone who is infected with HPV. The only sure way to prevent genital warts is to have sex. Sex only with a partner who is not infected with HPV.

Just because you can't see warts on your partner doesn't mean he or she doesn't have HPV. The infection can have a long incubation period. This means that months can pass between the time a person is infected with the virus and the time a person notices genital warts. Sometimes, the warts can take years to develop. In women, the warts may be where you can't see them--inside the body, on the surface of the cervix.

Using condoms may prevent you from catching HPV from someone who has it. However, condoms can't always cover all of the affected skin.


In many cases genital warts do not cause any symptoms, but they are sometimes associated with itching, burning, or tenderness. They may result in localized irritation.
Women who have genital warts inside the vagina may experience bleeding following sexual intercourse or an abnormal vaginal discharge. Rarely, bleeding or urinary obstruction may occur if the wart involves the urethral opening.


Depending on the sizes and locations of warts (as well as other factors), a doctor will offer one of several ways to treat them. Podofilox is the first-line treatment due to its low cost.

Podofilox solution in a gel or cream can be applied by the patient to the affected area and is not washed off. Podofilox is safer and more effective than podophyllin.

Podophyllin and podofilox should not be used during pregnancy, as they are absorbed by the skin and could cause birth defects in the fetus.

Cryotherapy: This technique freezes the wart using liquid nitrogen or a "cryoprobe." It is an excellent first-line treatment because response rates are high with few side effects.

Laser treatment: This treatment is used for extensive or recurrent genital warts. It may require local, regional, or general anesthesia. Disadvantages include high cost, increased healing time, scarring.

Electrodesiccation: This technique uses an electric current to destroy the warts. It can be done in the office with local anesthesia. Of note, the resulting smoke plume may be infectious.

Surgical excision is best for large warts, and has a greater risk of scarring.

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Molluscum Contagiosum
Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin. It is caused by poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). Molluscum contagiosum lesions are flesh-colored, dome-shaped, and pearly in appearance. They are often 1–5 millimeters in diameter, with a dimpled center.

The MC rash initially appears as smooth, pearly to flesh-colored, dome-shaped papules. With time, the center becomes soft and indented (umbilicated) with a white curdlike core.

Molluscum contagiosum (MC) that was first described in 1817. It is common worldwide and accounts for about 1% of all skin disorders in the United States.

Typically, the lesion of molluscum begins as a small, painless papule that may become raised up to a pearly, flesh-colored nodule. The papule often has a dimple in the center.

This common viral disease has a higher incidence in children, sexually active adults, the infection is most common in children aged one to ten years old. MC can affect any area of the skin but is most common on the trunk of the body, arms, and legs. It is spread through direct contact or shared items such as clothing or towels.

The virus commonly spreads through skin-to-skin contact. This includes sexual contact or touching or scratching the bumps and then touching the skin.
It primarily affects children (boys more often than girls).

Molluscum Contagiosum Causes

Molluscum contagiosum is transmitted by direct contact, either person to person or by shared items, such as clothing, towels, and washcloths.
Outbreaks have occurred in the following settings:

swimming pools,
wrestling matches,
during surgery, by a surgeon with a hand lesion (sore),
having tattoos (rare), and
Sexually: It is likely that genital lesions are sexually transmitted.

Lesions develop within two to three months after exposure. Some doctors consider MC a sexually transmitted disease in adolescents and adults and recommend that people with genital MC be tested for other STDs. However, not all genital lesions in adults are sexually transmitted.

Usually, there is no itching or tenderness, and there are no generalized symptoms such as fever, nausea, or weakness.

Medical Treatment

Removal of lesions reduces the rate of spread to other people as well as from one part of the body to another.

Genital lesions in adults should be treated in order to prevent spread through sexual contact.

The most popular treatments are scraping of the lesions (called curettage) or removal using heat (called cautery) or cold (called cryotherapy, a procedure performed with liquid nitrogen).

In children, the papules typically appear on the face, neck, armpits, hands and arms. In adults, molluscum contagiosum may be a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and is usually seen on the genitals, lower abdomen, inner upper thighs and buttocks.

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Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as "trich", is a common cause of vaginitis. It is a sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

Trichomoniasis is primarily an infection of the urogenital tract; the most common site of infection is the urethra and the vagina in women.

Approximately 174 million people worldwide are infected with this parasite each year, making it the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide

The average size of a trichomonad is 15 mm (they are not visible with the naked eye).


Typically, only women experience symptoms. These include inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis), urethra (urethritis), and vagina (vaginitis).


• Vaginal discharge
• Vaginal itching
• Smelly, itchy, and typically frothy or foamy discharge
• Yellow or gray-green discharge
• Pain with urination possible

In rare cases, lower abdominal pain can occur. Symptoms usually appear in women within 5 to 28 days of exposure. While symptoms are most common in women, some men may temporarily exhibit symptoms such as


• The majority of infected men have no symptoms
• Urethral discharge
• Pain with urination
• Pain and swelling in the scrotum (from epididymitis)


Trichomoniasis is diagnosed by visually observing the trichomonads via a microscope. In women, the doctor collects the specimen during a pelvic examination by inserting a speculum into the vagina and then using a applicator to collect the sample.

The sample is then placed onto a microscopic slide and sent to a laboratory to be analyzed.

Causes and Risk Factors of Trichomoniasis

Trichomonis can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. While trichomoniasis is usually passed sexually, it may be picked up from contact with damp or moist objects such as towels, wet clothing, or a toilet seat, if the genital area gets in contact with these damp or moist objects.Unlike most STDs, the parasite can live for about an hour on damp towels, washcloths, and bathing suits.

If someone uses these towels or washcloths or puts on the bathing suit, the disease may be passed on that way. The good news is that trichomoniasis is curable.


• Trichomoniasis may cause a woman to deliver a low-birth-weight or premature infant.
• Trichomoniasis is also associated with increased chances of cervical cancer
• Evidence implies that infection in males potentially raises the risks of prostate cancer development and spread due to inflammation.

Prevalence and prevention

Use of male condoms may help prevent the spread of trichomoniasis.

Medical Treatment

i. The treatment of choice is antibiotics prescribed by the doctor. In addition to antibiotics, some alternative medicine therapies are available.
ii. Home therapy should not be used instead of a doctor's visit and appropriate antibiotics, as this may allow the spread of the condition as well as harmful sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis, HIV, gonorrhea, or chlamydia. (The author does not advise you to use these alternative therapies but these are listed to be complete.)
iii. Some people feel that natural douches once a day while lying in a warm bath may help. To increase parasite-killing activity, you may add the juice of one lemon to the following douche:

Vinegar douche - 1 teaspoon vinegar to 1 quart warm water

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Inguinal Itching

It is common fungal infection that effects the skin, inner thighs, buttocks and genitals. It also called as tinea cruris or ringworm of the groin and is one of the most common infections of groin area. This fungal groin infection mainly targets men and adolescent boys. Jock itch can be triggered by friction from clothes and prolonged wetness in the groin area, such as from sweating.

It mostly restricts itself to the creases of the upper thigh, and does not invade the scrotum or the penis. However, it may spread to the anal region and cause itching, pain and burning sensation.


Symptoms include Itching in groin, thighs, skin folds, or anus. There may be red, raised, scaly patches that may blister and ooze. The patches often have sharply-defined edges and are often redder around the outside with normal skin tone in the center. Abnormally dark or light skin is also symptom in this condition. Flaking, peeling or cracking skin in your groin. In long standing infections, the rash becomes less itchy and less red and plaques may fuse together.

Generally, people tend to ignore the symptom, then as it aggravates, there is a tendency to buy the creams from the chemist over the counter. This subsides the itching for some time but as the exact cause is not known, generally after some days, again the infection comes back. People keep on trying different creams for years together but they are shy to go to the doctor. There should be the scientific approach to tackle the situation. Seeking doctor’s help in time can cure the infection well in time and further complications can be avoided.

You must have seen, Males standing in a group, talking to their companions & unknowingly scratching their groins areas. Many times they do not know what they are doing, but for others it is very embarrassing particularly when females are there!

There is a continuous distraction due to the itching. The person cannot concentrate and thus undergoes stress. This may disturb the life of the sufferer. So, it is important that such infections should be treated in time.


• Fungi causing jock itch is present on human skin and feed on dead skin. The moist and damp area provides them a perfect environment to grow and breed, particularly people having active life or those who sweat a lot suffer with jock itch frequently.
• People having been weaker immunity or suffering from diseases like diabetes HIV/AIDS are prone to suffer great jock itch.
• People sharing towels, clothes and people involved in activities where they cannot keep groin areas dry most of that time like sportsperson and people in sitting jobs are also at risk of catching jock itch.
• People suffering from other types of fungal infections like athletes foot may also suffer from this condition.
• Infection caused by Candida albicans is also responsible for causing jock itch
• Allergy to soap, washing powder, perfumes (chemical irritants) may also cause jock itch
• Senile pruritis – In old age the sebaceous glands in the skin becomes less active ,the skin looses its natural moisture and tends to become dry which leads to itching
• Jock itch may be contagious. It may be passed from one person to another by skin to skin contact our contact with unwashed clothing
• The presence of public lice, pthirus pubis can be one of the reasons
• Diabetes is marked by high levels of blood sugar which may give rise to groin itching
• Jock itch can also be triggered by friction from clothes and prolonged wetness in the groin area such as sweating
• Normally healthy skin secretes acid on its surface. This acid necessary for health and integrity of the skin, which also acts as a protective barrier. However through malnutrition, constant showers, harsh soaps, lotions and shampoos that removes the acid layer, toxins, poor blood circulation, low oxygen levels in the blood etc, health of the skin is compromised leaving it more vulnerable to fungal outgrowth.
• Eczema may be a cause of itchy groin, particularly in infants. It is described as the inflammation caused by a hypersensitive reaction in the skin. Eczema generally tends to run in families which often have a history of asthma or hay fever.
• Lichen Simplex is a skin condition that results in scratchy and itchy groin area. It may be accompanied with other skin disorders such as eczema and psoriasis.
• Allergic Reaction the chemical irritants such as detergents, body sprays, creams, ointments, fabric softeners, contraceptive foams or jellies can trigger an allergic reaction in your body. This may, in turn, lead to the formation of itchy, red rashes in groin area.

Examinations and Tests

Eczema, Lichen Simplex and Allergic Reaction are also reasons for if :-

The Doctor can usually diagnose jock itch based on how your skin looks.

Tests are usually not necessary. If tests are needed to confirm the diagnosis, either a culture or a skin lesion biopsy (for example, a scraping of the skin) may be done.

Complications :

• Permanent change in the skin colour of the affected area may occur.
• Secondary bacterial skin infections may occur.


Topical treatment is of great importance in treating jock itch. This includes a variety of treatments available in form of creams, lotions, paints, shampoos and medicated powders. The treatment given is in accordance with the severity of the infection.

Mild fungal/jock itch is often treated by a combination of: –

• Washing the groin twice daily with antifungal shampoo.
• Using its topical antifungal cream.
• Severe jock itch is treated by combination of antifungal shampoo, antifungal cream and antifungal oral medicines.


First and foremost, the cause of itching must be ascertained. Without knowing this no treatment would be efficient. Based on the cause, follo wing Ayurvedic treatment can be prescribed:-

 If itiching is due to eczema, paradadi balm can be applied locally on the skin. For severe eczema RASA MANIKYA can be used. Also Dadrughna lepa gives excellent results.
 Shuddha Gandhaka or Gandhak rasayana is an internal medicine to be used with external agents
 Take few neem leaves and grind them with water to make a paste. Add some turmeric to it. Use this paste for local application to the affected area and let it dry for at least 2 hours. Jock itch usually responds promptly to treatment.
 For fungal infections in females YONI PICHU is a therapy whereby cleaned sterilized cotton is dipped in medicated oil and placed within the vaginal passage. The swab/ cloth roll should be retained for a long time so that it exhibits action locally.Ulcers if present heal, pain subsides and local hygiene improves. This treatment is particularly useful in case of a vaginal infections and can be done using Bala taila (oil), Ashwagandha taila (oil), Phala ghruta, Triphala ghrut etc.
 YONI PRAKSHALANAM is also ayurvedic therapy for females. By this method by Vaginal area is cleaned with medicated oils and decoctions. PRAKSHALANAM the means washing /cleansing. Thus it is a gentle cleansing measure of genital organs to avoid fungal or yeast infections.For this a decoction of Triphala or Dashmoola can be used.
 Another Ayurvedic effective therapy is YONI DHUPAN. Groin Area is exposed to fumes of medicinal herbs (dhup). Herbs such as Daru Haridra, Lodhra Turmeric, Mangistha, Sariva etc.

Some Ayurvedic medicines which work as blood purifiers are used for skin itching such as Kishor guggal, Raktadoshnta kadha, khadiraristham, Nimbadi Kashayam, Maha Manjisthadi Kadha etc.

Home Remedies

These are some simple home remedies which the patient should try for any skin ailments. It gives effective results and prevent further infections.

• Avoid overexertion and workout routines, which may cause excess sweating.
• Keep your genital and groin area clean and dry.
• Saltwater tub bath is one of the simplest and effective home remedies for jock itch. Sought had still trying the infection and also inhibits the spread and growth of fungi.
• Increase in take of Garlic, fruit and vegetables is supportive diet during infections.
• Have a cup of yoghurt daily.
• Change undergarments twice or thrice daily.
• Alcohol can be used as a topical application for treating jock itch but it aggravates the infection if taken internally and hence completely avoid alcohol intake during infection.
• A decoction of licorice when applied locally with a cotton swab is also effective
• Use coconut oil in the affected areas as often as possible
• Wash the groin with the diluted juice of a freshly squeezed lemon which can help to dry rash
• Keep your blood sugar level under control if you have Diabetes.
Avoid using substances that you suspect contain the chemical allergens.
• Do not share cloths, bath suits and towels with anyone.
Wear clothes after the groin area is completely dry after bathing.
• Lose weight in case you are overweight. This will provide you relief from itchy groin.
• Resist the urge to scratch or itch as they will only aggravate the condition.


Since fungi tend to thrive in warm, dark, damp conditions, minimizing these conditions can help treat and prevent this rash. Some useful measures are:

1. Thoroughly clean the area is bit a hand-held shower and mild soap.
2. Keep your groin clean and dry at all times. If you are prone to jock itch, then cover your groin with antifungal or drying powders after you take a bath.
3. Avoid clothing or underwear that irritates the area. Choose loose fitting clothes with smooth fabrics that let your skin breath (like 100% cotton) rather than synthetic fibers. Wearing boxer underwear or no underwear, increasing air-flow by sleeping near a fan, wearing loose sleepwear or no sleepwear etc.
4. Exposing the area to wind and sun.
5. Take utmost care of personal hygiene
6. Refrain from scratching as it will irritate the rash and break the skin, creating the potential for infection.
7. Keep your blood sugar under control if you have diabetes
8. Do not share towels, hair brush, comb or clothes.

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लेखांक १३. श्री विष्णुसहस्रनाम स्तोत्रातì
श्री विष्णुसहस्रनाम स्तोत्रातील वैश्विक चैतन्य: डॉ. श्रीनिवास कशाळीकर
लेखांक १३.

अनादिनिधनं विष्णुं सर्वलोकमहेश्वरम्
लोकाध्यक्षं स्तुवन्नित्यं सर्वदु:खातिगो भवेत् -८.
भीष्माचार्य पुढे म्हणाले, “उत्पन्न होणे, वाढणे, टिकून राहणे, बुद्धिभ्रंश होणे, क्षीणता येणे आणि नाश पावणे असे सहाही विकार नसलेला म्हणून अनादिनिधनं असा, चराचराचा आणि जाणीवेच्या सर्व पातळ्यांचा स्वामी असल्यामुळे लोकाध्यक्षं असा, सर्वान्तर्बाह्य विश्व आणि जाणीवा व्यापणारा म्हणून विष्णू ह्या नावाने ओळखला जाणारा आणि सर्व सत्ताधीश असल्याने सर्वलोकमहेश्वम् असा ईश्वर; निरंतर स्तुती करण्यास म्हणजे उपासना करण्यास सर्वतोपरी योग्य आहे. ह्या सच्चिदानंदाच्या अशा सहवासामुळे, देहबुद्धीजन्य (उत्पन्न होणे, वाढणे, टिकून राहणे, बुद्धिभ्रंश होणे, क्षीणता येणे आणि नाश पावणे) अशा सर्व दु:खांपासून जीवाला मुक्ती मिळते.

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लेखांक १२. श्री विष्णुसहस्रनाम स्तोत्रातì
श्री विष्णुसहस्रनाम स्तोत्रातील वैश्विक चैतन्य: डॉ. श्रीनिवास कशाळीकर
लेखांक १२.
भीष्म उवाच
जगत्प्रभुं देवदेवन्तम पुरुषोत्तमम्
स्तुवन्नामसहस्रेण पुरुषसततोत्थित: -६.
भीष्माचार्य म्हणाले, “सर्व जगाचा (चराचर विश्वाचा) स्वामी, देवांचा देव (आपण देव म्हणून किंवा सर्वश्रेष्ठ म्हणून जी कल्पना करू शकतो त्या भ्रामक कल्पनेपलिकडे असलेला) आणि अनंत म्हणजे आपल्या जाणीवेतील सर्व मर्यादित आणि नश्वर विश्वाच्या अतीत असा पुरुषोत्तम आहे. अर्थपूर्ण अशा त्याच्या एक हजार नामांच्या आधारे त्याचे स्मरण (जप) आणि स्तुती करून आपण उद्धरले जातो. (आपल्या जडत्वातून आणि अज्ञानातून मुक्त आणि जागृत होत जातो).
तमेव चार्च्ययन्नित्यं भक्त्या पुरुषमव्ययम्
ध्यायन्स्तुवन्नमस्यंश्च यजमानस्तमेवच – ७.
भीष्माचार्य मग म्हणाले, “आपल्या सर्वांच्या अंतर्यामी असलेल्या ह्या अविनाशी सत्याला सगुण रूप देऊन त्या पुरुषाची भक्तिपूर्वक पूजा अर्चा करावी. त्याचे ध्यान करावे आणि त्याची स्तुती करावी. त्याला नमन करावे”.
ह्याचा मथितार्थ असा की, ह्या अविनाशी तत्वाबद्दल आपल्याला असलेली सुप्त ओढ, तिच्या विरुद्ध असणाऱ्या आपल्या वासनांमुळे दुबळी होते हे जाणून त्या सर्व वासना आणि आशा आकांक्षा; जाणीवपूर्वक आणि सतत त्या पुरुषाच्याकडे वळवायच्या. अशा तऱ्हेने; सर्वान्तर्यामी नियंत्रक प्रभुत्वाने वसणाऱ्या ह्या सत्ताधीशाचा ध्यास घ्यायचा, सर्व लक्ष त्याच्यावरच केंद्रित करायचे, त्याच्याबद्दलची आपली नितांत पण सुप्त आवड मनात घोळवून ती आवड व्यक्त आणि दृढ करणारी स्तुती करायची; आणि त्याच्यापासून दूर नेणारे आपले सर्व संकुचित अस्तित्व त्याच्या चरणावर संपूर्णपणे झोकून द्यायचे, त्याच्या पायावर लोळण घ्यायची!

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लेखांक ११. श्री विष्णुसहस्रनाम स्तोत्रातμ
श्री विष्णुसहस्रनाम स्तोत्रातील वैश्विक चैतन्य: डॉ. श्रीनिवास कशाळीकर
लेखांक ११.
प्रश्न ५.
को धर्म: सर्व धर्माणां भवत: परमो मत:
धर्म ह्याचा अर्थ सर्व दृश्य आणि अदृश्य अशा विश्वाला आधारभूत अशी व्यवस्था. तिचे अचूक ज्ञान आत्मसात होणे हे मनुष्य जीवनाला आधारभूत असून अशा ज्ञानाला अखिल मानव जातीचा आणि म्हणूनच प्रत्येक व्यक्तीचा सर्वश्रेष्ठ धर्म असे म्हणतात.
ह्या धर्माविषयी संभ्रम होऊ नये म्हणून आपल्या सर्वांच्या वतीने महाराज युधिष्ठीर हा प्रश्न विचारतात. याअगोदर जे चार प्रश्न विचारले गेले आहेत, त्याना अनुरोधून पाहिले तर, अंतरीचा निर्गुण देव, म्हणजेच योग्य स्तुती आणि पूजेचे अचूक स्थान ह्या सर्वश्रेष्ठ धर्माच्या आचरणानेच प्राप्त हितात आणि आपले जीवन सर्वतोपरी कृतार्थ होत होत; सच्चिदानंद अनुभूतीमध्ये परिणत होते.
प्रश्न ६.
किं जपन्मुच्यते जन्तुर्जन्मसंसार बंधनात?
याअगोदर विचारात घेतलेल्या धर्माचे एक उन्नत, अत्यावश्यक आणि अविभाज्य अंग म्हणजे स्मरण. ह्यालाच जप असेही म्हणतात.
सुरवातीला “जन्म-मृत्त्युचे बंधन” आणि “त्यातून मुक्ती” हे शब्दप्रयोग आणि ह्या कल्पना आपल्याला अनैसर्गिक (आणि काहीजणांना तर विकृत) वाटू शकतात. परंतु आपण जसे जसे; जीवनाच्या गाभ्याच्या नजीक पोचतो, तसे तसे हे शब्द प्रयोग आणि ह्या कल्पना समजू लागतात. त्यांच्यातील मर्म ध्यानात येऊ लागते. जन्म आणि मृत्युच्या अर्थात संसाराच्या बंधनातून मुक्ती म्हणजे आंतरिक सामाधानापासून पुन्हा पुन्हा फरफटत दूर जावे लागण्यापासून मुक्ती असते; ह्याची कल्पना येऊ लागते.
पण हे सारे नामस्मरणाच्या आचरणानेच अधिकाधिक स्पष्ट होऊ लागते!
पण म्हणूनच महाराज युधिष्ठीर आपल्या सर्वांच्या वतीने हा प्रश्न उपस्थित करीत असताना दिसत आहेत, की कोणत्या जपाच्या साह्याने जंतू म्हणजे मनुष्य प्राणी जन्म आणि मृत्यू ह्यांच्या; अर्थात संसाराच्या बंधनातून मुक्त होईल?

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