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Relationship between Severity of Periodontal Disease and Control of Diabetes (Glycated Hemoglobin) in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Background: Both diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis
are chronic diseases affecting large number of the population
worldwide. Changes in human behavior and lifestyle over the
last century have resulted in a dramatic increase in the incidence
of diabetes in the world. This study was designed to evaluate the
relationship between severity of periodontal disease and control of
diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HBA1c]) in patients with Type 1
DM in a hospital based study.
Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (n = 50) with Type 1
diabetes were enrolled in the study. They were divided into three
groups based on the degree of glycemic control by measuring
HbA1c levels as: “Good” (HBA1c ≤7) Group A, fair (HBA1c = 7-8)
Group B and poor (HBA1c >8) Group C. All enrolled patients
underwent detailed history and dental checkup. Evaluation for
periodontal disease was done by measuring dental plaque (plaque
index), inflammation of gums (gingival index), probing pocket
depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level.
Results: Type 1 diabetics with poor glycemic control had
increased gingival inflammation (P < 0.05), more dental plaque
(P < 0.05), increased PPDs (P < 0.05) and attachment loss
(P < 0.05) as compared to those with fair and good glycemic
control, respectively.
Conclusion: Severity of periodontal disease increases with poor
glycemic control in patients with Type 1 DM.

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