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DEAF & BLIND CAN NOW WATCH TELEVISION REAL TIME
DEAF & BLIND CAN NOW WATCH TELEVISION REAL TIME

PROF .DRRAM,HIV /AIDS,HEPATITIS ,SEX DISEASES & WEAKNESS expert,New Delhi,India, profdrram@gmail.com,+917838059592,+919832025033,ON WHATSAPP

For the first time, researchers have developed a new technology that types Braille or subtitles of television channels in real time and helps deaf-blind people "watch" television without intermediaries.The people, who have tried it, highlighted the advantage of being able to access information they previously could not, in real time and without intermediaries, and they have also praised its ability to transmit to Braille lines and the ability to adjust the reading and viewing speed.

Researchers from Universidad Carlos III de Madrid explained Pervasive SUB, it compiles all the subtitles of television channels and sends them to a central server which forwards them to smartphones or tablets.From there, they are sent to the Braille line of the deaf-blind person thanks to the GoAll app, which integrates the software, is compatible with different Braille lines and makes it possible to control the speed of the subtitles that are captured directly from the TV broadcast in perfect synchronization.
The lead researcher García Crespo said that at Telefonica their endeavor is to become a more accessible company and that way contribute to equal opportunities for all.The research team is now providing this service free of charge to anyone who needs it. Interested parties need only to download the GoAll app, available on ¡OS and Android.
Deaf-blind persons suffer a combined deterioration of sight and hearing, which impedes their access to information, communication and mobility in a way that seriously affects everyday abilities necessary for a minimally independent lif

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ANTIBODY IDENTIFIED TO KILL CANCER CELLS-prof dr ram hiv/aids,hepatitis expert
ANTIBODY IDENTIFIED TO KILL CANCER CELLS-prof dr ram hiv/aids,hepatitis expert

PROF .DRRAM,HIV /AIDS,HEPATITIS ,SEX DISEASES & WEAKNESS expert,New Delhi,India, profdrram@gmail.com,+917838059592,+919832025033,ON WHATSAPP


Researchers have found that an antibody -- originally developed for studying the autoimmune condition multiple sclerosis -- can promote the immune system`s ability to fight cancer and decreases tumour growth.In a study published in the journal Science Immunology, the researchers reported that the antibody decreased tumour growth in models of melanoma (skin cancer), glioblastoma (brain cancer) and colorectal carcinoma, making it an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy.
The antibody can precisely target regulatory T cells which in turn unleash the immune system to kill cancer cells. T cells (Tregs) which help maintain the immune system`s tolerance of "self," can, inadvertently, promote cancer`s growth by preventing the body`s immune system from detecting and attacking cancer cells.
The researchers, led by neurologist Howard Weiner from Brigham and Women`s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, found that they could precisely target Tregs using an antibody.The team developed these so-called anti-LAP antibodies initially to investigate the development of multiple sclerosis, but realised their work had implications for the study of cancer.
In the current study, the team used preclinical models to investigate how well anti-LAP antibodies could work in blocking the essential mechanisms of Tregs and restoring the immune system`s ability to fight cancer. They found that anti-LAP acts on multiple cell populations to promote the immune system`s ability to fight cancer, including increasing the activity of certain types of T cells and enhancing immune memory.
"In addition to studying its therapeutic effect, we wanted to characterise the mechanism by which the anti-LAP antibody can activate the immune system," said lead author Galina Gabriely, a scientist in the Weiner laboratory. "We found that it affects multiple arms of the immune system," Gabriely said.

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REGULAR INTAKE OF MEDICINE "ADHERANCE" IMPROVED HIV PATIENTS-THE LANCET STUDY
REGULAR INTAKE OF MEDICINE "ADHERANCE" IMPROVED HIV PATIENTS-THE LANCET STUDY


PROF .DRRAM,HIV /AIDS,HEPATITIS ,SEX DISEASES & WEAKNESS expert,New Delhi,India, profdrram@gmail.com,+917838059592,+919832025033,ON WHATSAPP

A new dtudy has been published in The Lancet - Infectious Diseases, the breakthrough deals with how patients take their medication and adhere to regimes, as too many face irregular regimes or discontinue medication.A new program or better patient assistance was designed by University of Aberdeen and Academic Medical Centre (Amsterdam) teams. University of Aberdeen Professor, Marjin de Bruin, stated ‘this is the first adherence intervention in HIV care that demonstrates clinical and cost effectiveness. The intervention can be applied in routine clinical care, and the effects have been reproduced in consecutive trials. Although HIV medications are very effective, they can have quite a few side effects and people with HIV don’t usually experience any symptoms of the disease, so for these and other reasons it is unsurprising that adherence among some patients is suboptimal. We designed a programme in such a way that it would fit in with routine care and only adds about 10 minutes to the consultation. Our intervention has proved to be very successful at improving drug-adherence and in turn reducing treatment failure. Importantly, these effects were most profound amongst patient groups from which we know struggle most with this treatment. As well as important for patients’ own health, having a very low viral load means that people are extremely unlikely to transmit the virus to other people. So not only is this a significant improvement to individual patients’ health, it is also important for public health because it may help to curb the pandemic by interrupting the transmission of the virus. That the intervention also saved money rather than required extra resources was unexpected, and strongly suggested that introducing this programme in routine HIV care is beneficial for patients and safety. It is very important to note that the medication non-adherence is very common with long and short-term treatments for many conditions, often contributing to poor patient outcomes and increased health care expenditure. We will therefore seek to adapt and test the benefits of this intervention in a range of other chronic condition.’

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NIPT "Non Invasive Pregnancy Test" DIAGNOSE CHROMOSAL ABNORMALITY BUT MAY BE USED FOR SEX DETERMINATION IN INDIA-NEED REGULATIONS TO SAVE FEMALE CHILD
NIPT "Non Invasive Pregnancy Test" DIAGNOSE CHROMOSAL ABNORMALITY BUT MAY BE USED FOR SEX DETERMINATION IN INDIA-NEED REGULATIONS TO SAVE FEMALE CHILD
PROF.DRRAM ,HIV/AIDS,SEX Diseases, Hepatitis .& Deaddiction Expert
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Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), also known as noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD), is a screening method for detecting certain specific chromosomal abnormalities in a developing baby. Noninvasive prenatal testing is a sophisticated blood test that examines fetal DNA in the maternal bloodstream to determine whether your baby is at risk of Down syndrome, extra sequences of chromosome 13 (trisomy 13), extra sequences of chromosome 18 (trisomy 18) or a sex chromosome abnormality, such as Turner syndrome. The testing can also be used to determine a rhesus (Rh) blood type. Noninvasive prenatal testing is much more sensitive and specific than traditional first and second trimester screening. As a result, noninvasive testing can often help women who have certain risk factors avoid invasive testing, such as: Amniocentesis. During this procedure, a small sample of the fluid that surrounds and protects the baby during pregnancy (amniotic fluid) is removed from the uterus for testing. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS). During CVS, a small sample of the wispy projections that are part of the developing placenta (chorionic villi) are removed from the placenta for testing. Amniocentesis and CVS both carry a slight risk of miscarriage. Noninvasive prenatal testing can determine whether baby is at risk of a chromosomal condition. Risk factors might include older maternal age or having previously given birth to a baby who has Down syndrome, trisomy 13 or trisomy 18. If patient a carrier of an X-linked recessive disorder. X-linked recessive disorders, such as Duchenne's muscular dystrophy or a blood-clotting disorder (hemophilia), typically affect only males. If PT have an Rh negative blood type. Noninvasive prenatal testing can determine baby's Rh factor. If mother Rh negative and baby is Rh positive(from husband ), mother might produce Rh antibodies after exposure to baby's red blood cells. This is called becoming sensitized. (This is typically not a concern during a first pregnancy, but can be a concern during subsequent pregnancies and due to excessive RBC BREAKDOWN high serum bilirubin may kill or badly affect the baby.) The new blood test NIPT will let expecting mothers know the sex of their baby as early as the first trimester. The falling sex ratio is already a bother for policymakers and sociologists in India. Now, scientists have developed a new blood test that will allow early detection of foetal gender, further endangering the girl child.Unlike ultrasound tests currently used for finding out the sex of an unborn child, the new blood test would let expecting mothers know the sex of their baby as early as the first trimester. The test measures the ratio of two crucial enzymes, DYS14 and GAPDH, from foetal DNA circulating in the mother's blood. The ratio is an effective indicator of foetal gender, Korean scientists who developed the test said. The research results have been published in the latest issue of the Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. The non-invasive test will require just a drop of blood from the pregnant woman. Currently, till the onset of ultrasound, the procedure of amniocentesis is used for sex determination. But it is invasive and carries the risk of miscarriage. Moreover, it can't be performed until 11 weeks of pregnancy. Ultrasound gives reliable determination of foetal gender but it can't be performed in the first trimester. The use of ultrasound for sex determination has been outlawed in India, following its misuse for abortion of the female foetus, which has led to skewed sex ratio in many parts of the country. Researchers from the University School of Medicine in Seoul claim the ratio test will be the first of its kind. "This can reduce the need for invasive procedures in pregnant women," researcher Hyun Mee Ryu said. The study involved analysing the blood samples from 203 women during their first trimester. The presence of circulating foetal DNA and the quantity of the two enzymes were confirmed through a series of tests. The results were confirmed when the women gave birth. "The study shows it is possible to predict the sex of a child as early as the first few weeks after conception," Gerald Weissmann, journal editor, said. While the test is a major scientific advance, it can be misused in India. IT IS HIGHLY FREELY DONE IN INDIA BUY MANY LABS AND IS NOT REGULATED AND GRADUALLY COST IS COMING DOWN IN COMPETITION AND LIKELY TO BE MISUSED FOR SEX DETERMINATIONS AS COST IS HIGH BUT IN GROWING MIDDLE CLASS ECONOMY MANY CAN SPEND

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CHIKUNGUNIYA PATHO PHYSIOLOGY & MANAGEMENT
CHIKUNGUNIYA -PATHO PHYSIOLOGY MANAGEMENT
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease first described during an outbreak in southern Tanzania in 1952. It is an RNA virus that belongs to the alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. In 2006, total 13,90,322 clinically suspected cases of Chikungunya were reported from 16 States/UTs in India.This Chikungunya fever guideline is published by the Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control, Govt of India in the year 2016. This guideline synopsis is dedicated to the Clinical management of Chikungunya. The information also covers the origin of the disorder, its epidemiology, diagnostic evaluations of the tests and management of the disease. Clinical Management of Chikungunya guidelines are summarized as follows: Since 1960, the outbreaks of the Chikungunya disease in South Eastern Asia were reported from India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines and Malaysia. Chikungunya outbreaks typically result in large number of cases but deaths are rarely encountered. Transmission and Trends: Chikungunya fever epidemics display cyclical and seasonal trends. There is an inter-epidemic period of 4-8 years (sometimes as long as 20 years). Outbreaks are most likely to occur in post-monsoon period when the vector density is very high and accentuates the transmission. Human beings serve as the Chikungunya virus reservoir during epidemic period. Types of Laboratory Tests available For Detection of Chikungunya Virus: Virus Isolation (Exposing cell lines samples from blood). Serological Diagnosis (ELISA IgM Specific). RT-PCR. Differential Diagnosis: Dengue Fever Malaria Leptospirosis Enteric Fever Rheumatic Fever Reactive arthritis Serum sickness illness Rickettsial disease Clinical Features: Acute phase: Less than 3 weeks Sub-acute phase: > 3 weeks to 3 months Chronic phase: > 3 months Symptoms: Fever Arthralgia/Arthritis Backache Headache Skin rash/Itching Symptoms which are seen in Children (Rarely in Adults) Photophobia Retro-orbital pain Vomiting Diarrhea Meningeal syndrome Acute encephalopathy Long course symptoms: Arthralgia Myalgia Arthritis Persistent Joint stiffness Restricted joint movement Painful joint movement Enthesopathy Tendinnitis Skin pigmentation Skin rash Impact of chikungunya on Pregnancy: A pregnant woman can get affected with the chikungunya virus at any stage of pregnancy. The time of huge risk of Chikungunya virus transmission from a mother to a fetus appears to be during birth. Chikungunya is more deadly in children as compared to adults because children cannot express exact symptoms and it may take time to diagnose the disease. Chikungunya in Elderly: The elderly are affected in more serious manner than the younger population. The body resistance is low in case of elderly and this causes the debilitating effects on their bodies. Chikungunya in elderly people could cause cerebral problems like dementia and paralysis and kidney disorders. Chikungunya Co-infection with Dengue: This is not very unusual as both Dengue and Chikungunya are arboviral diseases, transmitted by the same Aedes mosquitoes. The other observed symptoms in the patients who are suffering from infections of chikungunya and dengue are other non-specific constitutional symptoms such as anorexia, vomiting, headache, and muscle or joint pains and subjected the samples to Chikungunya serology as well. Guidelines for Management of the Chikungunya Disease: Management during Acute and sub-acute phase of the illness Management during Chronic phase or Sequelae. There is no antiviral drugs against Chikungunya Most of the signs and symptoms are self-limiting. Treatment for Chikungunya is purely symptomatic-supportive care and rest and nutrition Analgesics, antipyretics and fluid supplementation are important aspects in managing this infection. Supportive or Palliative Medical Care With Anti-inflammatories Supportive care with rest is indicated during the acute joint symptoms. Movement and mild exercise tend to improve stiffness and morning arthralgia, but heavy exercise may exacerbate rheumatic symptoms. There Is No Vaccine Currently Available. Disabling peripheral Arthritis/ Artropathy refractory to NSAID: Short term corticosteroid may be used. Long term anti-inflammatory therapy Physiotherapy Chloroquine phosphate Management of Chikungunya with High risk group: Proper management of Co-morbid condition and co-infection. Through the recent epidemics, Chikungunya has demonstrated its ability to spread and infect large proportions of the population. There is a very good chance that Chikungunya will continue to spread unless measures are taken to improve the recognition of the disease, to control the vectors responsible for the transmission Show Less

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