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Dec 28
Cutting antibiotics duration bad for kids with ear infections
Reducing the duration of antibiotics can do more harm than good when treating children with ear infections, warns a study.

When treating children between 9 and 23 months of age with antibiotics for ear infections, a shortened course has worse clinical outcomes without reducing the risk of antibiotic resistance or adverse events, showed results of the trial involving over 500 kids.

"Given significant concerns regarding overuse of antibiotics and increased antibiotic resistance, we conducted this trial to see if reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment would be equally effective along with decreased antibiotic resistance and fewer adverse reactions," said Alejandro Hoberman, Professor at University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in the US.

"The results of this study clearly show that for treating ear infections in children between 9 and 23 months of age, a five-day course of antibiotic offers no benefit in terms of adverse events or antibiotic resistance," Hoberman noted.

"Though we should be rightly concerned about the emergence of resistance overall for this condition, the benefits of the 10-day regimen greatly outweigh the risks," Hoberman added.

In the current trial, 520 children with acute otitis media were randomly assigned to either a standard 10-day regimen of the antibiotic amoxicillin-clavulanate or a shortened five-day treatment followed by five days of placebo.

Acute otitis media is a common bacterial infection of the middle ear behind the ear drum in kids which causes it to become painfully inflamed.

The risk of treatment failure in the five-day group (34 per cent) was more than twice as much the risk in the 10-day group (16 per cent), according to the results published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

When they tested the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria through back of the nose swabs, there was no decrease in the 5-day group as might have been expected with a shorter duration of antibiotics.

Also, reduced-duration antibiotics did not decrease the risk of frequent adverse events like diarrohea or diaper rash, the study said.

Dec 27
New treatment could fast-track elephantiasis elimination
If a recently proposed combination of three particular drugs is used, the devastating elephantiasis disease can be prevented or treated rapidly using fewer rounds of drugs, a new research has found.

Lymphatic filariasis -- commonly known as elephantiasis -- is a neglected tropical disease, which causes serious damage to the lymphatic system.

A large proportion of the billion people living with the threat of transmission of this disabling parasitic disease is in India, Indonesia and Myanmar where the triple drug combination could be used, the researchers said.

"Our results show that this regimen could potentially overcome important issues plagued by elimination campaigns, by making elimination as a public health problem achievable in a few years," said first author of the study Mike Irvine from the University of British Columbia in Canada.

Lymphatic filariasis is caused by parasitic worms, and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes.

Many people with the disease develop elephantiasis causing pain and profound disfigurement -- such as large swelling of the arms, legs or genitals -- and leading to permanent disability.

These patients are not only physically disabled, but suffer mental, social and financial losses, contributing to stigma and poverty.

Currently, people with Lymphatic filariasis require multiple rounds of treatment -- but if the drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and albendazole are used together recent clinical studies have shown that the drugs are more effective at killing the worms.

The new modelling work - published in the journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases - showed that this meant that the number of rounds of mass drug administration needed to treat the disease may fall from many rounds to only two or three.

The models were developed at the University of Warwick in Britain, Erasmus Medical Centre in the Netherlands, and Notre Dame University in the US.

All three models were in agreement in the effectiveness of the regimen in reducing the prevalence of disease. The researchers noted that more effective treatment with fewer drugs rounds is crucial in poorer countries where transmission is high but resources are low.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has targeted the disease for elimination as a public health problem by the year 2020.

Dec 26
Smoking during pregnancy may impair children's kidney
A new research has revealed that expectant mothers should not smoke during pregnancy as it might impair children's kidney.

It is said that children who are born to women who smoked during their pregnancy were more likely to show signs of kidney damage by the age of three, compared to those born to non-smoking mothers.

The findings showed that maternal smoking during pregnancy was one of the risk factors of childhood proteinuria, abnormal amount of protein in urine -- a sign of kidney disease.

The effects on kidney health were evident in 3-year-old children.

Koji Kawakami from Kyoto University, in Japan, "Maternal smoking during pregnancy is known to be associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, and neonatal asphyxia. The findings from this study suggest an additional adverse effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy".

For the study, the team looked for the presence of proteinuria in urinary tests from 44,595 children from pregnancy to three-years of age.

The results showed that the prevalence rates of proteinuria in children at age three in the maternal smoking groups -- none, past, and current -- were 78.9 per cent, 4.4 per cent and 16.7 per cent, respectively.

Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 1.24-times increased risk of child proteinuria compared with no exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy.

"Prevention of child proteinuria is important since child proteinuria can lead to development of chronic kidney disease in adulthood and ultimately end stage renal disease," Kawakami said.

The findings is forthcoming in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (CJASN).

Dec 21
Pregnancy causes alterations in women's brain to adapt to motherhood
Pregnancy can cause long-lasting changes -- at least for two years post-partum -- in the morphology of a woman's brain and help them adapt to challenges of motherhood such as the ability to interact with the child, researchers have found.

The study, which used magnetic resonance imaging on participants, showed that the brains of women who underwent pregnancy demonstrated a symmetrical reduction in the volume of grey matter in the medial frontal and posterior cortex line, as well as in specific sections of, mainly, prefrontal and temporal cortex in pregnant women -- brain regions associated with social cognition.

According to researchers, no changes in memory or other cognitive functions were observed during the pregnancies and, therefore, they believed that the loss of grey matter does not imply any cognitive deficits, but rather such changes correspond to an adaptive process of functional specialisation towards motherhood.

"The findings point to an adaptive process related to the benefits of better detecting the needs of the child, such as identifying the newborn's emotional state," said Oscar Vilarroya from the Autonomous University of Barcelona in Spain.

The areas with grey matter reductions were also found to overlap with brain regions activated during a functional neuro-imaging session in which the mothers of the study watched images of their own babies.

"These changes concern brain areas associated with functions necessary to manage the challenges of motherhood," added another researcher Erika Barba from the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

In addition, the reductions in grey matter were practically identical in both women who had undergone fertility treatments and women who had become pregnant naturally.

The study was published in the journal Nature Neuroscience.

Dec 16
This is why you should encourage your children to use gestures while they think
Parents, take note! Encouraging children to use gestures as they think can help them come up with more creative ideas, according to new research.

"Our findings show that children naturally gesture when they think of novel ways to use everyday items, and the more they gesture the more ideas they come up with," said Elizabeth Kirk from the University of York in the UK.

"When we then asked children to move their hands, children were able to come up with even more creative ideas," said Kirk.

"Gesturing may allow us to explore the properties of the items - for example, how the item could be held, its size, its shape, etc - and doing so can trigger ideas for creative uses," Kirk added.

In their first study, researchers compared the creativity of children who spontaneously gestured with those who either did not or could not gesture.

A total of 78 children, ranging from nine to 11 years old, saw a series of images depicting ordinary household items, including a newspaper, a tin can and a kettle.

The researchers asked the children to look at each image and list as many novel uses as they could think of.

The children could take as much time as they needed; when they paused, researchers prompted them by saying "What else could you do with it?"

A subset of participants completed the task twice - on one version of the task, they wore mittens that limited their ability to gesture.

Researchers transcribed and coded each session, measuring the number of valid novel uses generated by each participant, as well as the originality of those responses and the diversity of categories that the responses fell under.

The data showed that children spontaneously gestured and that greater gesturing was associated with a greater number of creative ideas.

Restricting children's ability to gesture did not impact their ability to come up with creative uses for the objects.

Children who were free to gesture produced about the same number of ideas as those who wore the mittens and could not gesture.

This may be because children still had many other idea-generating strategies at their disposal when their hands were restricted.

In a second experiment, 54 children, ranging from 8 to 11 years old, completed the same alternative uses task.

In some cases, children gestured normally; in other cases, researchers instructed them to "use your hands to show me how you could use the object in different ways."

Children who gestured normally produced 13 gestures, on average, while those who were specifically prompted to gesture produced about 53 gestures, on average.

Children who were encouraged to gesture generated a greater number of novel uses for the everyday objects than did the children who were not given any special instruction.

The research appears in the journal Psychological Science.

Dec 12
This new drug show hope for infants with rare, fatal muscle disease
A new study by US researchers have found a new novel drug that shows hope for infants suffering with rare, fatal muscle disease.

This new experimental drug may have the potential to improve the quality of life for infants suffering from a rare, lethal neuromuscular disorder.

Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease that affects around one in every 11,000 births.

It affects the nerve cells in the spinal cord that connect to the muscles, causing them to waste away resulting in progressive muscle weakness and difficulty in breathing and eating.

Infantile-onset, which is the most severe form of the disease, occurs from a defect in the gene called SMN2, responsible for producing survival motor neuron (SMN) -- a protein critical for normal cell function.

It affects babies under the age of six months. Less than a quarter of those diagnosed with the disease will live up to two years without major feeding and breathing support.

The findings, a phase 2 trial involving 20 babies with infantile-onset SMA, showed the treatment with the drug nusinersen could increase the production of SMN protein by modifying a closely-related gene to compensate for the genetic defect.

Apart from being safe for use in babies as young as five-week-old, nusinersen was also found to halt progression of the disease and in many cases improve motor function.

In addition, nusinersen sometimes enabled children to gain skills such as sitting, rolling over, and standing -- usually not seen in SMA Type 1 -- as well as improved survival without depending upon the continuous use of a ventilator, the researchers explained.

Richard S. Finkel, lead author from Nemours Children's Hospital in Florida, US said "With nusinersen, these infants are not only living longer, but living better".

Finkel added, "SMA is no longer a death sentence for infants. This treatment is by no means a cure, but it is more than we've ever been able to offer these families before".

The study was published in The Lancet.

Dec 06
Men more prone to Type 2 diabetes than women: Study
Researchers said men could be more prone to Type 2 diabetes as they accumulate more iron than women. As compared to one-fifth of women, two-fifth of men were at risk of the disease.

Iron is a micronutrient which is required in the formation of some essential body proteins and enzymes, like haemoglobin, cytochromes and peroxidase.

Though it is harmful when stored in excess in the body, but promotes the release of free radicals that damage the secretion capacity of beta cells of pancreas to produce insulin.

The findings said, it also decreases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues and organs involved in glucose metabolism.

The study led by Alex O. Aregbesola from University of Eastern Finland, showed that men have 61 per cent higher prevalence and 46 per cent increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes when compared with women.

Excess body iron accumulation is a known risk factor of Type 2 diabetes in hereditary hemochromatosis -- a disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron from the diet.

However, the study showed that even mildly elevated body iron contributes to the prevalence and incidence of Type 2 diabetes.

This excess iron was found to disturb the glucose metabolism in the body. On the other hand, moderate iron stores were found safer than depletion toward iron deficiency.

Iron depletion toward deficiency did not offer protection against Type 2 diabetes.

The type of association between iron stores and the risk of Type 2 diabetes showed that the risk was lowest on moderate levels, the researchers said.

"This study provides a new body of evidence that mildly elevated body iron is an important risk factor of glucose metabolism derangement, which contributes to the increase in the prevalence and incidence of Type 2 diabetes," Aregbesola said, in the paper published in the journal Annals of Clinical Biochemistry.

(With IANS inputs)

Nov 30
Prevent hypertension, diabetes in mid-life to lower heart failure risk
Preventing the development of hypertension, obesity and diabetes in mid-life -- between the age of 45 and 55 years -- can result in an 86 per cent lower risk of heart failure throughout the remainder of life, says a research.

Millions of people worldwide currently suffer from heart failure as well as face a significantly reduced quality of life and higher mortality rate.

The study found that hypertension, obesity and diabetes -- major risk factors as well as highly prevalent in individuals -- are preventable risk factors for heart failure, the researchers said.

Further, people with diabetes were found to have a particularly strong association with shorter heart failure-free survival, as those without diabetes lived on average between 8.6 and 10.6 years longer without heart failure.

Men at age 45 years without any of the three risk factors lived an average of 10.6 years longer free of heart failure, while women at age 45 without any of the three risk factors lived an average of 14.9 years longer without heart failure.

"The study adds to the understanding of how individual and aggregate risk factor levels, specifically in middle age, affect incident heart failure risk over the remaining lifespan," said John T. Wilkins from the Northwestern University at Evanston, in Illinois, in the US.

Prevention of hypertension, obesity and diabetes by ages 45 and 55 years may substantially prolong heart failure-free survival, decrease heart failure-related morbidity and reduce the public health impact of heart failure, the researchers noted.

The study was published in the journal JACC Heart Failure.

Nov 24
This new colour-coding tool may help track blood stem cells causing cancer
A new colour-coding tool has been developed by scientists that can help them track live blood stem cells clones that plays a role in blood disorders and cancers like leukemia.

People are born with a certain number of blood stem cells and rely on them for life. Various blood disorders and cancers rises when a mutant clone of an original blood stem cell starts to dominate.

But what actually happens with blood stem cells over time has been hard to pin down.

Leonard Zon, Director of the Stem Cell Research Programme said, "There's significant interest in determining how a stem cell clone expands, what makes one clone dominant, and why that predisposes you to cancer and blood disorders".

For the study, the researchers have used the new tool on a specially bred zebrafish called Zebrabow that has multiple copies of genes for red-blue-gene fluorescent protein scattered through its genome.

This technique yields, in theory, about 80 different colours based on the cell's overall proportions of each fluorescent protein -- each colour representing a different clone or variety of blood stem cell, the researchers said.

Thus, with the new technique, the researchers could isolate the cells by colour, and then look at what genetic factors are involved in their expansion.

Until now, this has been hard to analyse, since no one knew how many blood stem cells we start out with.

Based on the zebrafish data, the researchers estimate that blood stem cells make up about 20 per cent of all blood cell progenitors at the time they are formed.

The study provides a starting point for exploring, for example, why and how a particular blood stem cell clone may begin to expand as people age, posing a risk for leukemia, or how cancer chemotherapy can sometimes transform tumour cells as well as help improve bone marrow transplant for a variety of childhood and adult disorders.

The study appears in the journal Nature Cell Biology.

Nov 21
Sleep disorder may affect kidney function
According to new study, improper sleep may worsen the kidney function and may lead to kidney failure.

The findings that will be presented at ASN Kidney Week 2016 at McCormick Place in Chicago suggested that not getting enough sleep was linked with worsening kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Although there is increasing evidence that sleep disorders are common in individuals with CKD, its link with CKD progression is unknown. To investigate, Ana C. Ricardo, MD (University of Illinois at Chicago) and her colleagues examined the sleep patterns of 432 adults with CKD.

The participants wore a wrist monitor for five to seven days to measure sleep duration and quality, and their health was followed for a median of five years.

The participants slept an average of 6.5 hours/night, and during follow-up, 70 individuals developed kidney failure and 48 individuals died.

After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and baseline kidney function, each additional hour of nighttime sleep was linked with a 19 percent lower risk of developing kidney failure.

There was also a significant association between sleep quality and kidney failure risk: each one percent increase in sleep fragmentation was linked with a four percent increase in the risk of developing kidney failure.

Also, the patients who experienced daytime sleepiness were 10 percent more likely to die during follow-up than those who were not sleepy during the day.

"Short sleep and fragmented sleep are significant, yet unappreciated risk factors for CKD progression," said Dr Ricardo."Our research adds to the accumulating knowledge regarding the importance of sleep on kidney function, and underscores the need to design and test clinical interventions to improve sleep habits inindividuals with CKD," he added.

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