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A study was conducted in 19 centers over a period of six months to understand the different types of constipation and the causes behind them. One of the key highlights has been that constipation is highly prevalent in cities as compared to the rural areas. The word 'constipation' has varied meanings for different individuals. Although medical personnel defines constipation as bowel movements per week, patients often equate constipation with stool consistency, feelings of incomplete emptying, straining, and urge for defecation. SCION has recently concluded a National study to determine the prevalence of clinical subtypes of constipation viz., primarily functional constipation and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-constipation across Kolkata, Mumbai Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Bangalore Chennai, Delhi and Pune with a sample size of 925 constipated patients. Finding of the study are as follows:---- 1. Out of 925 constipated patients, 75.6% were diagnosed with Functional Constipation (FC) against 24.4% with irritable Bowel Syndrome - Constipation (IBS-C). 2. Hypertension (16%) and diabetes (10%) in patients with FC while acid peptic disorders (21.7%) amongst IBS-C patients were the most common comorbid conditions observed. 3. Laxatives were the most common medication used; osmotic (32.6% versus 40.7%) and bulk laxatives (22.8% versus 37.4%) were the commonest laxatives. 4. Gender and residence distribution amongst constipation subtypes was found to be statistically significant. In both subtypes, males predominated females (FC: 63.1% versus 36.9% patients; IBS-C: 65.5% versus 34.5% patients) and urban population predominated rural population (FC: 71.5% versus 28.5% patients; IBS-C: 62.0% versus 38.1% patients).

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