World's first medical networking and resource portal

Category : All ; Cycle : September 2011
Medical Articles
weight and watch
Morbid Obesity—A killer disease

Obesity today is recognized as a health problem of epidemic proportions. Overweight is detrimental for a person's, physical, social, psychological and emotional health. Obesity is responsible for Diabetes, Hypertension, Pulmonary problems, Obstructive sleep apnea, knee pains, Cancer of ovary, breast, uterus, prostate and many more problems. Obese people suffer from depression, lack of confidence, marital problems which are more agonizing but less visible.

An Obese Person Is.........

6 times more likely to develop gallbladder disease
5.6 times more likely to develop high blood pressure
3.8 times more likely to develop diabetes
2 times more likely to develop osteoarthritis
Higher rates of cancer have also been linked to obesity including prostate, breast, cervix, and ovarian cancers.

Losing weight will significantly reduce the many health risks that accompany obesity;

Now even growing children are getting obesity disorder due to excess indulgence of indoor games and watching T.V plus avoidance of outdoor games and exercise and premature obesity in later years can also become a cause of early death.

Why Surgery?
Although diet, exercise, behavior therapy and anti-obesity drugs are first-line treatment, but these medical solutions are only temporarily successful with the patient invariably regaining even more weight than the amount lost.

In this condition, Obesity Surgery (bariatric surgery) generally results in greater weight loss than conventional treatment, and leads to improvements in the quality of life and almost complete resolution of obesity related diseases like hypertension and diabetes. That is why obesity surgery is now being termed as Metabolic Surgery.

Am I Candidate
In order to determine if you are a candidate for weight-loss surgery, it is helpful to know your Body Mass Index or BMI. It is equal to your weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of your height (in meters). If your BMI is over 40 or BMI over 35 with comorbidities (Diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea etc) and have been unsuccessful at dietary / behavioral approaches to weight loss, you may be a candidate for laparoscopic weight-loss surgery.

Surgery for morbid obesity

First of all, it must be clear that this is not a cosmetic procedure but an “fight for existence”. Main obesity surgery procedures are Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass surgery, Lap Band surgery, Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy surgery.

Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding
A silicon band is placed around the upper part of stomach, creating a small pouch that can hold only a small amount of food. The narrowed opening between the stomach pouch and the rest of the stomach controls how quickly food passes from the pouch to the lower part of the stomach. Connected to the band is tubing which is attached to a port, this part is placed under the skin in a muscle in the chest wall. The band can be tightened or loosened to meet your needs, on OPD basis.

Laparoscopic Roux-en-y Gastric Bypass:
Gastric bypass involves creating a small pouch by dividing the stomach. The small intestine is divided and brought up to join the new stomach pouch. This allows food to go straight from the stomach pouch into the small intestine, which causes it to bypass the lower stomach and the duodenum (the first segment of the small intestine). This reduces the amount of calories that the body absorbs.

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

The sleeve gastrectomy works by limiting the amount of food you’re able to eat. The surgeon will remove about 70-85% of your stomach. Your new stomach then takes on the shape of a banana thereby

reducing the storage capacity of stomach.

All these operations can be done laparoscopically so that the patient spends only one to two days in the hospital and can return to their daily routine in 1-2 weeks. Patients can lose 50-80% of their excess weight over 1-2 years

How does obesity surgery change your life?

Laparoscopic Bariatric / Metabolic surgery leads to definite & sustained loss of weight and reversal of

most of medical problems like diabetes and hypertension etc.

1 Lifestyle adjustments: Patient must learn to eat food in small amounts and to chew it well and slowly.
2 Weight loss starts soon after surgery and continues for atleast 2 years.
3 There is enhanced quality of life, with improved stamina, mood, self esteem and body image.
4 Almost complete resolution of DM, HPT, Sleep apnea, dyslipidemia etc.
5 Obesity surgery is not a cosmetic surgery

If you need any further information please contact:

Dr Puneet Gupta
Consultant–Minimal Access & Bariatric Surgery
Viraj Khand, Gomti nagar, Lucknow
Mobile: 09919314819

Category (Gastrointestinal Problems)  |   Views (7028)  |  User Rating
Rate It

Homeopathy Remedies for Piles
Title : Homeopathy Remedies for Chronic Bleeding Piles

Case History : An Electricity Junior engineer once came to my clinic who has pain and bleeding in anus. He went to surgery for his chronic bleeding and painful piles problem. But after surgery he did not get any reduce of pain and bleeding ( his problem). When i met him in my clinic his mentality is entirely against the doctors. I talked with him for an half an hour about his symptoms. The symptoms as follows,

1. Pain in anus part when going for motion.
2. Often he has bleeding in anus.
3. No visible of Engorged Veins
4. Constipation.
5. No swelling in anus.
For this symptoms I gave him the following Remedies,

1. Aesculus(200).
2. Aloes(200).
3. Hamamelis(200).
4. Ratania(200).

5. Acid Nitric(1M) - 2 Pills per day.

6. Bio 17.

After taken the medicines the patient got free from his problem.

Category (General Medicine)  |   Views (7578)  |  User Rating
Rate It

Short segment pedicle screw fixation for unstable T11-L2 fractures: with or without fusion? A three-year follow-up study.
Acta Orthop Belg. 2009 Dec;75(6):822-7.
Short segment pedicle screw fixation for unstable T11-L2 fractures: with or without fusion? A three-year follow-up study.
Hwang JH, Modi HN, Yang JH, Kim SJ, Lee SH.

Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopedics, Konkuk University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

In unstable thoracolumbar fractures T11-L2, exaggerated kyphosis at the end of treatment may predispose to late back pain and poor functional outcome. Short-segment (SS) (3 vertebrae) pedicle instrumentation has become a popular method of treatment. However the question to add a fusion or not is still under debate. The authors retrospectively evaluated the radiological and functional results in 74 patients who had undergone an SS pedicle screw fixation. They were divided into two groups: group 1 (39 patients) was the non-fusion group; group 2 (35 patients) was the fusion group. In the non-fusion group the mean preoperative, immediate postoperative and final kyphosis angles at the fracture site were respectively 20.8 degrees +/- 6.4, 8.2 degrees +/- 4.8, and 15.2 degrees +/- 6.0. In the fusion group the corresponding angles were 26.6 degrees +/- 4.1, 7.9 degrees +/- 2.1, and 8.4 degrees +/- 2.4, which demonstrated a distinctly better final result (p < 0.0001). In the non-fusion group the preoperative, immediate postoperative and final follow-up visual analog scores (VAS) for back pain were respectively 7.3 +/- 0.8, 3.9 +/- 0.8, and 3.4 +/- 0.9. In the fusion group the corresponding scores were 7.5 +/- 1.0, 3.9 +/- 1.1, and 1.6 +/- 0.7; the final result pleaded again in favour of fusion (p < 0.0001). Moreover, there were significantly more implant-related complications (screw loosening and breakage) in the non-fusion group (p < 0.0001). The authors conclude that fusion is advisable to obtain a better final outcome with respect to kyphosis and pain, and to avoid implant-related complications. However, at least one other study has led to the opposite conclusion: the issue remains controversial.

Category (Back & Neck)  |   Views (10531)  |  User Rating
Rate It

Risk of developing seizure after percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy.
J Spinal Disord Tech. 2011 Apr;24(2):83-92.
Risk of developing seizure after percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy.
Choi G, Kang HY, Modi HN, Prada N, Nicolau RJ, Joh JY, Pan WJ, Lee SH.

Department of Neurosurgery, Wooridul Spine Hospital, 47-4 Chungdam-dong, Seoul, Korea.

A retrospective analysis in patients who underwent percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and developed seizures during the procedure; and to identify the risk of developing seizure during PELD by measuring cervical epidural pressure.

To evaluate clinical significance, characteristics, and risk factors for developing seizure and neck pain in patients undergoing PELD.

Increased epidural pressure during PELD has been reported earlier. Risk of developing intraoperative seizure has not been investigated till date. We experienced some unexpected complication such as, seizures during PELD, and, therefore, we correlated it with the prodromal symptom and the strategies to avoid such complications during PELD.

Four of the total 16,725 patients who underwent PELD between 2000 and 2008 developed intraoperative seizures. A review of their medical records and radiologic files were correlated with the complication. Factors evaluated were the type of seizures, prodromal symptoms, comorbidities and clinical outcome. To postulate a pathophysiologic cause of seizure, we designed a study to monitor the intraoperative cervical epidural pressure in 33 patients undergoing PELD.

A striking feature of the 4 patients in this series was that they all complained of neck pain before the seizure event. There was no identifiable pattern of seizure observed. The duration of the procedure in these patients was longer than uninvolved cases. None of the patients developed any type of sequel subsequent to seizure. The outcome of surgery has been similar with the patients that did not have any type of complications after PELD. In the subsequent study of cervical epidural pressure, no patients developed seizure. However, there was occurrence of neck pain in the group with increased cervical epidural pressure.

Although rare (0.02%), seizure can occur in patients undergoing PELD, occurrence of neck pain is correlated with increase in cervical epidural pressure, which should be considered as prodromal sign and alert the surgeon. Duration of procedure and speed of infusion are associated risk factor.

Category (Back & Neck)  |   Views (10439)  |  User Rating
Rate It

Posterior multilevel vertebral osteotomy for severe and rigid idiopathic and nonidiopathic kyphoscoliosis: a further experience with minimum two-year follow-up.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Jun 15;36(14):1146-53.
Posterior multilevel vertebral osteotomy for severe and rigid idiopathic and nonidiopathic kyphoscoliosis: a further experience with minimum two-year follow-up.
Modi HN, Suh SW, Hong JY, Yang JH.

Department of Orthopedics, Scoliosis Research Institute, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Prospective randomized study.

To evaluate the clinica! and radiologic outcome of posterior multilevel vertebral osteotomy (PMVO) in patients with severe kyphoscoliosis.

Authors have developed and reported results of PMVO for correction of neuromuscular scoliosis. PMVO has advantages such as, posterior-only procedure which avoids risk to pulmonary complications and gives satisfactory correction. However, its effect in correcting severe scoliosis in presence of rigid kyphosis has not been reported.

Thirteen patients (7 idiopathic, 4 cerebral palsy, and 2 congenital scoliosis) with severe and rigid kyphoscoliosis were operated by posterior-only correction with pedicle screw fixation using PMVO. As per pathology, and associated severity of kyphosis little modification in the original technique was applied while correction and osteotomy. Neuromonitoring was applied in all patients during operation. The radiologic and clinical results were evaluated with an average follow-up of 42.9±11 months. All postoperative complications were also noted during the follow-up period.

Average number of osteotomy was 4.2±0.8 (range, 3-5). Average preoperative Cobb angle, pelvic obliquity, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis were 99.2°±29.6°, 8.6°±9°, 73.6°±56.9°, and -47.2°±63.2°, respectively, which improved after surgery to 44.7°±12.3°, 2.8°±2.9°, 45.3°±15.9°, and -47.7°±12.2°. All corrections were maintained at final follow-up. A 54.3% correction was achieved in coronal plane; and, full correction was achieved in sagital plane as thoracic kyphosis was restored within normal range. Average blood loss and operative time was 3015±1213 mL and 6.01±1.09 hours, respectively. Three patients had postoperative respiratory complications; 2 had hemothorax and 1 had atelectasis; none had follow-up consequences. All pulmonary complications were due to associated thoracoplasty during which pleura was ruptured intraoperatively. Two patients had complication related with the implants; 1 screw breakage and other screw prominence. There was no neurologic injury intraoperatively on motor-evoked po- tentials (MEP) or clinically after surgery.

PMVO exhibited satisfactory clinical and radiologic results in patients with severe and rigid scoliosis associated with hyperkyphosis at minimum 2-year follow-up. It can be safely applied with modifications in original technique for complex congenital scoliosis with multilevel hemi or block vertebrae and idiopathic/nonidiopathic spinal deformities.

Category (Back & Neck)  |   Views (9884)  |  User Rating
Rate It

Surgical correction of paralytic neuromuscular scoliosis with poor pulmonary functions.
J Spinal Disord Tech. 2011 Jul;24(5):325-33.
Surgical correction of paralytic neuromuscular scoliosis with poor pulmonary functions.
Modi HN, Suh SW, Hong JY, Park YH, Yang JH.

Department of Orthopedics, Scoliosis Research Institute, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

A retrospective study.

To evaluate clinical and functional success by all pedicle screw construct in paralytic neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) with poor pulmonary functions (PFT).

Duchene muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy are often associated with poor PFT and the development of scoliosis simultaneously. Poor PFT often make surgeons reluctant to operate.

Eighteen paralytic NMS patients who had preoperative forced vital capacity (FVC) < 30% were operated with all pedicle screw construct. Average preoperative, postoperative, and final follow-up Cobb angle, pelvic obliquity, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis, PFT (FVC% and forced expiratory volume 1%), and preoperative and follow-up functional status were analyzed. Perioperative and postoperative complications were also noted.

The average follow-up was 31.6 ± 7.7 months. There was significant improvement in Cobb angle (61.7%) and pelvic obliquity (56.7%), postoperatively (P < 0.001). All corrections were maintained at final follow-up. FVC was decreased from 25.2 ± 4.7% preoperatively to 24.2 ± 5.0%, 6 weeks postoperatively (P = 0.067); and on follow-up it further decreased to 20.6 ± 3.9% (P < 0.0001) (1.8%/y). Forced Expiratory Volume 1 also decreased from 22.7 ± 4.5% preoperatively to 21.8 ± 4.2% postoperatively (P = 0.037) and was 19.8 ± 3.8% at final follow-up (P < 0.0001) (1.1%/y). However, none of the patients had any respiratory complications postoperatively. Functional status was improved in 6 patients and they were able to sit without support (P = 0.027). Eight (44.4%) perioperative complications (5 pulmonary, 1 intraoperative death, and 2 others) were noticed. Postoperatively, 4 patients (23.5%) had complications; coccygodynia, back sore because of screw prominence, impingement of iliac screw, and loosening of the rod from L5 screw. All the patients were satisfied with the treatment. There were no major pulmonary complications requiring admission postoperatively.

Although complications are associated with the treatment of paralytic NMS, a good clinical and function outcome suggests that poor PFT should not be considered as a contraindication of scoliosis surgery.

Category (Back & Neck)  |   Views (9756)  |  User Rating
Rate It

Idiopathic scoliosis in Korean schoolchildren: a prospective screening study of over 1 million children.
Eur Spine J. 2011 Jul;20(7):1087-94. Epub 2011 Jan 28.
Idiopathic scoliosis in Korean schoolchildren: a prospective screening study of over 1 million children.
Suh SW, Modi HN, Yang JH, Hong JY.

Scoliosis Research Institute, Department of Orthopedics, Korea University Guro Hospital, 80 Guro-Dong, Guro-Gu, Seoul, South Korea.

Cross-sectional epidemiologic scoliosis screening was carried out to determine the current prevalence of scoliosis in the Korean population and to compare with the results of previous studies. Between 2000 and 2008, 1,134,890 schoolchildren underwent scoliosis screening. The children were divided into two age groups, 10-12-year-olds (elementary school) and 13-14-year-olds (middle school), to calculate age- and sex-specific prevalence rates. Children with a scoliometer reading ≥5° were referred for radiograms. Two surgeons independently measured curve types, magnitudes, and Risser scores (inter-observer r = 0.964, intra-observer r = 0.978). Yearly and overall prevalence rates of scoliosis were calculated. There were 584,554 boys and 550,336 girls in the sample, with a male to female ratio of 1.1:1. There were 77,910 (6.2%) children (26,824 boys and 51,086 girls) with scoliometer readings >5°, and 37,339 of them had positive results with Cobb angles ≥10° (positive predictive value, 46.4%). The overall scoliosis prevalence rate was 3.26%; girls had a higher prevalence (4.65%) than boys (1.97%). Prevalence rates increased progressively from 1.66 to 6.17% between 2000 and 2008, with the exception of 2002. According to age and gender, 10-12-year-old girls had the highest scoliosis prevalence rates (5.57%), followed by 13-14-year-old girls (3.90%), 10-12-year-old boys (2.37%), and 13-14-year-old boys (1.42%). In girls and boys, prevalence rates dropped by 64.53 and 60.65% among 10-12-year-olds and 13-14-year-olds, respectively (P = 0.00). The proportion of 10°-19° curves was 95.25 and 84.45% in boys and girls, respectively; and the proportion of 20°-29° curves was 3.91 and 11.28%, which was a significant difference (P = 0.00). Thoracic curves were the most common (47.59%) followed by thoracolumbar/lumbar (40.10%), double (9.09%), and double thoracic (3.22%) curves. A comparison of the curve patterns revealed significant differences between genders (P = 0.00). We present this report as a guide for studying the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis in a large population, and the increasing trend in the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis emphasizes the need for awareness.

Category (Back & Neck)  |   Views (8862)  |  User Rating
Rate It

A tea made from saffron is another effective home remedy for fever. This tea is prepared by putting half a teaspoon of saffron in 30 ml of boiling water. The patient should be given a teaspoon of this tea every hour till the temperature returns to normal

Category (General Medicine)  |   Views (6643)  |  User Rating
Rate It

House remedies
An effective way to get relief from the pain of arthritis is to massage the affected area with warm olive oil.

Category (Muscles, Bones & Joints)  |   Views (7356)  |  User Rating
Rate It

Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome, often Missed: A Case Report and review
Case Report May-August, 2011/Vol 31/Issue 2
May-August, 2011/Vol 31/Issue 2 -146- J. Nepal Paediatr. Soc.
Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome, often Missed: A Case Report and
Kumar MK1, Narayan R2
1Dr. Mani Kant Kumar, MBBS, MD. Assistant Professor, 2 Dr. Raghvendra Narayan, MBBS, MD. Associate Professor.
Both from the Department of Paediatrics, Narayan Medical College and Hospital, Jamuhar, Sasaram, Bihar, India.
Address for Correspondence: Dr. Mani Kant Kumar,


Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, eczema
and recurrent infections. We report a 15 month old boy who had presented with lower gastrointestinal
bleed, recurrent infections and eczema. Blood picture revealed microthrombocytopenia, high IgA and
IgE, and low IgM and Normal IgG levels. A diagnosis of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome was made, which was
missed by many paediatrician even after prolonged hospital stay before admission in our Institute. The
recent progress in understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment are discussed.
Key words: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Eczema, Microthrombocytopenia

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by a triad of thrombocytopenia with decreased mean platelet volume, eczema, and increased susceptibility to pyogenic and opportunistic infections1. Immunologically, there is poor antibody response to polysaccharide antigens, progressive decrease in T cell number and function, and a characteristic immunoglobulin profi le refl ected in low IgM, elevated /normal IgA, elevated IgE and normal/ low IgG levels2.

The rapid destruction of abnormally shaped platelets is the primary cause for severe thrombocytopenia in WAS patients3. The immunodefi ciency in WAS is primarily associated with T- and B-lymphocyte dysfunction. The protein encoded by the WAS gene (WASP) is a hematopoietic specifi c regulator of actin nucleation in response to signals arising at the cell membrane4. Mutations impairing but not abolishing WASP expression can cause X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) and is considered an attenuated form of WAS because it is
characterized by low platelet counts with minimal or no immunodefi ciency5.

Purpose of reporting this case to increase awareness among paediatrician of developing countries regarding high index of suscpicion and to think other possibilities if any patient not improving to the exetent expected inspite of adequate treatment. Here we are reporting a case with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome from Bihar, India and recent progress in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and treatment are discussed.

Case Report

A 15-month-old boy, born by spontaneous vaginal delivery of a non-consanguineous marriage presented with second episode of bleeding per rectum. There was no history of decreased urine output, no abdominal pain, no swelling over body, no family history of similar illness
in family. There was history suggestive of recurrent sinopulmonary and soft tissue infections, eczematoid rashes which was started form scalp and gradually progressed to all over body since early infancy which was treated by many paediatricians. First episode of bleeding per rectum occurred 2 months back, during fi rst episode initially treated by a paediatrician as case of dysentery but no improvement in the bleeding then he referred this case to another hospital, where he was diagnosed as case of Hemolytic Uremic syndrome. Patient was hospitalized for 40 days and managed with 6 times fresh whole blood transfusion, broad spectrum antimicrobials and was discharged on request when J. Nepal Paediatr. Soc. -147- May-August, 2011/Vol 31/Issue 2 asymptomatic for 5 days. After 15 days of discharge
patient again developed bleeding per rectum then brought to our institute. Investigation during fi rst episode revealed Hemoglobin 7.5 gm/dl, TLC 12400/cmm, DLCP 58, L40, E02, Platelet count 20,000/cmm, general blood picture (GBP) - microcytic hypochromic anemia, no
fragmented RBC, Tiny platelets, no immature cell, blood urea 18mg/dl, Creatinine 0.6 mg/dl, urine was normal normal on routine examination and microscopy, inspite of 6 times fresh whole blood transfusion predischarged platelet count was 36,000/cmm.

On admission in our hospital he was afebrile, alert and active. He had mild pallor pulse rate 92 per minute, respiratory rate of 32 per minute, weight 5.5 kg (less than 3rd centile), length 70 cm (less than 3rd centile), sparse hair and eczematoid rash over the scalp, neck, skin folds of upper and lower limbs. His head circumference was 43 cm (normal for age) and chest circumference 41 cm. There were no congenital malformations. Respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous system were within normal limits while the liver was palpable 1
cm below the costal margin. Laboratory investigations revealed hemoglobin (Hb) of 9.6gm/dl, total leukocyte count 11,800/cumm and platelet count 25,000/cumm. PT (Prothrombin time) was 13 seconds and aPTT was 31 seconds. General blood picture revealed normocytic
hypochromic with microthrombocytopenia. Blood urea was 16mg/dl and creatinine was0.6mg/dl and Urine was normal on routine examination and microscopy, urine culture was sterile. Immunoglobulin profi le showed high IgA (179mg/dl, normal less than 83 mg/dl for age ), low IgM (95mg/dl, normal >145 mg/dl), High IgE (1560unit/ ml normal 1.4- 52.3 unit/ml for age) and normal IgG (1378 mg/dl), HIV serology was negative.

Patients was managed with oral antimicrobials, multivitamins, one time@ 20ml/kg fresh whole blood transfusions(because platelets concentrates not available in our blood bank) and IV immunoglobulin at rate 400mg/kg, he improved gradually, and pre discharged platelets count was 55,000/cumm. Parents were counselled regarding available treatments options and after 7 days of hospital stay he was dischared on Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, multivitamins & iron supplementation, emmoliants as advised by dermatologist with advice of monthly IV Ig replacement therapy. He was on regular monthly Immunoglobulin replacement therapy in follow up and doing well, and
has gained weight 2 kg over past 5 months.


The present case demonstrated characteristic clinical triad of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome-intermittent bleeding because of thrombocytopenia, progressive eczema since early infancy and recurrent sinopulmonary bacterial infections. Immunoglobulin profi le showed high IgA, low IgM, High IgE and normal IgG. Small platelets size and low platelets count clinched the diagnosis in favour of Wiskott - Aldrich syndrome. At a later age when T cell functions are affected, opportunistic infections may occur. Children who survive the fi rst 8-10 years are at risk for the development of lymphoid malignancies. The diagnosis of Wiscott Aldrich Syndrome is based on the demonstration of increased serum IgA and IgE and decreased serum IgM levels, absence of isohemagglutinins, and poor anti-body response to polysaccharide antigens in males with characteristic constellation of clinical features2. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a complex and severe X-linked disorder characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, immunodefi ciency, and increased risk in developing
autoimmunity and lymphomas.

WAS affects 1 to 10 of every 1 million male newborns and their life expectancy is approximately 15 years. The protein encoded by the WAS gene (WASP) is a hematopoietic specifi c regulator of actin nucleation in response to signals arising at the cell membrane4,5.
Among clinical manifestations, hemorrhages are frequent (80% incidence) in WAS and range from non– life-threatening (epistaxis, petechiae, purpura, oral bleeding) to severe manifestations, such as intestinal and intracranial bleeding. Death of WAS patients
is caused, in 21% of the cases, by haemorrhages6. Bleeding is the result of severe thrombocytopenia with reduced platelet size, which is the most common fi nding in WAS and XLT patients (100% incidence). Thrombocytopenia occurs irrespectively of the severity
of the mutation and is possibly caused by instability of mutated WASP in platelets7. Despite intensive research, the mechanisms underlying WASP related thrombocytopenia and hemorrhages are not completely understood. Megakaryocyte numbers have been
reported to be normal in the majority of WAS patients, whereas proplatelet formation depending on actin polymerization and formation of branching structures is conserved when tested in in vitro and ex vivo cultures8. Peripheral destruction of platelets in the spleen is thought
to play an important role in thrombocytopenia because a substantial correction of the platelet count and size after splenectomy has been reported. The accelerated destruction could be caused by an intrinsic defect of WASP-defi cient platelets, showing an increased surface
exposure of phosphatidylserine, or could be mediated by autoimmune reaction because of the presence of antiplatelet antibodies reported in patients and in the murine knockout model9. May-August, 2011/Vol 31/Issue 2 -148- J. Nepal Paediatr. Soc. The typical skin lesions in WAS patients resemble acute or chronic eczema in appearance and distribution. Eczema develops in 80% of the patients6
and is heterogeneous in severity and persistence. The causes of eczema in WAS patients are currently unknown. WAS patients often have elevated IgE levels and develop allergies therefore suggesting an atopic origin10. Recently, an imbalance in cytokine production toward the Th2 type has been described in WAS patient’s T-cell lines and might contribute to the pathogenesis of eczema and allergy11. WAS-associated autoimmune complications are frequently observed. The incidence of autoimmunity in classic WAS is high in the US and European populations (40%-72%), whereas a lower incidence was reported in Japan (22%)6,10,12. The most common manifestations are autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cutaneous vasculitis, arthritis, and nephropathy. Less common autoimmune manifestations include infl ammatory bowel disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and neutropenia. Patients frequently have multiple autoimmune
manifestation at the same time. Development of autoimmunity have a poor prognosis12. Until now, the mechanisms of WAS-associated autoimmunity have not been clarifi ed. It has been proposed that autoimmunity could be the result of a bystander tissue damage
originating from the chronic infl ammatory state that is established after incomplete pathogen clearance13. Moreover, autoimmunity is associated with a higher risk of a later development of tumors and an increased risk of mortality6. Two distinct surveys report a tumor
incidence of 13%6 and 22%10 in WAS patients. Tumors can arise during childhood (especially myelodysplasia) but are more frequent in adolescents and young adults. WAS-associated tumors are mainly lymphoreticular malignancies, with leukemia, myelodysplasia, and
lymphoma (often Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]–positive) resulting in up to 90% of the cases. WAS-associated malignancies have a poor prognosis because less than 5% of patients survive 2 years after diagnosis6, and result in up to 25% of death cases13. WASP is a
key regulator of actin polymerization in hematopoietic cells. As a cytoskeletal regulator, it is necessary for induction of normal immunity. WASp functions as a bridge between signaling and movement of the actin fi laments in the cytoskeleton. WASp has several welldefi
ned domains (pleckstrin, cofi lin, verprolin, SH3) that are involved in signaling, cell locomotion, and immune synapse formation. In vitro studies with T cells, platelets, phagocytes, and dendritic cells of patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome reveal defects in the
formation of microvilli, fi lopodia, phagocytic vacuoles, and podosomes, respectively; these structures depend on cytoskeletal reorganization of actin fi laments.

Researchers also identifi ed many different mutations that interfere with the protein binding to Cdc42 and Rac GTPases, among other binding partners, most of which are involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton of lymphocytes14,15. The actin cytoskeleton
is responsible for cellular functions, such as growth, endocytosis, exocytosis, and cytokinesis. Mutations of WASP are located throughout the gene and either inhibit or dysregulate normal WASp function. WASp facilitates the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB) and was shown to play an important role in lymphoid development and in the maturation and function of myeloid monocytic cells. In mice, WASp was found to be essential for NF-ATp activation, and for nuclear translocation of p-Erk, Elk1 phosphorylation, and c-fos
gene expression in T cells. These defects in mutated forms of WASP are the likely etiology of defective IL-2 expression and T-cell proliferation in Wiskott- Aldrich


Research has shown phenotype-genotype correlation. Classic Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked thrombocytopenia, and X-linked neutropenia occurs when WASp is absent, when mutated WASp is expressed, and when missense mutations occur in the Cdc42-binding site, respectively16. Pre-natal diagnosis is possible using DNA technology, either by direct identifi cation of mutation or by linkage.
Treatment is directed mainly at control of bleeding through transfusions of blood and platelets, and control of infections with antibiotics and Immunoglobulin replacement. Splenectomy improves the platelet number but makes the patient susceptible to sepsis, requiring
life long prophylaxis with antibiotics17. Immunoglobulins given intravnously may be helpful in prophylaxis of both viral and bacterial infections, but do not improve thrombocytopenia. Eczema is diffi cult to manage and may persist even after long term use of local steroids.
Currently, the only curative therapeutic option for WAS patients is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). When a related human leukocyte antigenidentical donor is available, HSCT leads to more than 80% survival rate. On the other hand, transplantation using the bone marrow of a mismatched related donor results in a decreased survival rate18,19,20,21. When a suitable related donor is not available, bone marrow or cord blood transplantation from a matched unrelated donor is a valid therapeutic option, leading to a 71% to
81% survival rate19,20,22. A better outcome for matched unrelated donor and mismatched related donor HSCT in patients younger than 5 and 2 years of age, respectively, has been reported, suggesting that transplantations should be performed early in life19,20,23.
J. Nepal Paediatr. Soc. -149- May-August, 2011/Vol 31/Issue 2 The fi rst reported case of sucessful BMT for WAS in India from Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore24. The implementation of new therapeutic strategies, such as transplantation of autologous genecorrected hematopoietic stem cells, is highly desirable because it will avoid rejection and graft-versus-host disease and could be applicable to all WAS patients lacking a suitable bone marrow donor, allowing the timely treatment of the disease. The rationale for
gene therapy is also supported by the observation of frequent spontaneous somatic revertants conferring selective advantage to WASP expressing cells25. At present, retroviral vectors based on the murine Moloney leukemia virus have been used for the treatment of
patients with SCID-X1, ADA-SCID, and X-CGD26,27,28. Recently, a gene therapy trial for WAS was initiated in Germany using a murine Moloney leukemia virusderived retroviral vector encoding the full WASp cDNA. Preliminary data from the fi rst 2 patients 18 months
after gene therapy indicate amelioration of the clinical phenotype with correction of thrombocytopenia and resolution of eczema and autoimmunity29. Dupre L et al have demonstrated that lentiviral vector encoding a 1.6-kb fragment of the human WAS endogenous
promoter (w1.6WLV) is able to successfully restore WASP expression in CD34_ HSCs, T cells, B cells, and DCs, and to correct TCR-driven activation in T-cell lines derived from WAS patients30. However gene therapy using a lentiviral vector is still in experimental phase in
animal model for the treatment of WAS. WAS patient should be immunized except live vaccine because a protective antibody response often obtained.


We should have high index of suspicion of WAS if any patient presented with bleeding manifestation with history of recurrent sino-pulmonary infection and eczema especially at centres with limited resources in developing country, because early diagnosis and
treatment has better prognosis.


1. Aldrich RA, Steinberg AG, Campbell DC.Pedigree
demonstrating a sex-linked recessive condition
characterized by draining ears, eczematoid
dermatitis and bloody diarrhoea. Pediatrics

2. Inoue R, Kondo N, Kuwabara N, Orii T.Aberrant
patterns of immunoglobulin levels in Wiskott-Aldrich
syndrome. Scand J Immunol 1955;41:188-93.

3. Mullen CA, Anderson KD, Blases RM. Splenectomy
and: or bone marrow transplantation in the
management of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: long-term
follow up of 62 cases. Blood 1993;82:2961–964.

4. Symons M, Derry J, Karlak B, et al. Wiskott- Aldrich
syndrome protein, a novel effector for the GTPase
CDC42Hs, is implicated in actin polymerization.
Cell 1996;84:723-34.

5. Villa A, Notarangelo L, Macchi P, et al. X-linked
thrombocytopenia and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
are allelic diseases with mutations in the WASP
gene. Nat Genet 1995;9:414-17.

6. Sullivan K, Mullen C, Blaese R, Winkelstein J.
A multi institutional survey of Wiskott-Aldrich
syndrome. J Pediatr 1994;125:876-85.

7. Shcherbina A, Rosen F, Remold-O’Donnell E.
WASP levels in platelets and lymphocytes of
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome patients correlate with
cell dysfunction. J Immunol 1999;163:6314-320.

8. Haddad E, Cramer E, Riviere C, et al. The
thrombocytopenia of Wiskott Aldrich syndrome
is not related to a defect in proplatelet formation.
Blood 1999;94:509-18.

9. Burns S, Cory GO, Vainchenker W, Thrasher AJ.
Mechanisms of WASp-mediated hematologic and
immunologic disease. Blood 2004;104:3454-462.

10. Imai K, Morio T, Zhu Y, et al. Clinical course
of patients with WASP gene mutations. Blood

11. Trifari S, Sitia G, Aiuti A, et al. Defective Th1
cytokine gene transcription in CD4_ and CD8_ T
cells from Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome patients. J
Immunol 2006;177:7451-461.

12. Dupuis-Girod S, Medioni J, Haddad E, et al.
Autoimmunity in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
risk factors, clinical features, and outcome in a
single center cohort of 55 patients. Pediatrics

13. Arkwright PD, Abinun M, Cant AJ. Autoimmunity in
human primary immunodefi ciency diseases. Blood

14. Kwan SP, Hagemann TL, Blaese RM, Rosen
FS. A high-resolution map of genes, microsatellite
markers, and new dinucleotide repeats
from UBE1 to the GATA locus in the region
Xp11.23. Genomics 1995;29(1):247-52.

15. Snapper SB, Rosen FS. The Wiskott-Aldrich
syndrome protein (WASP): roles in signaling
May-August, 2011/Vol 31/Issue 2 -150- J. Nepal Paediatr. Soc.
and cytoskeletal organization. Annu Rev
Immunol 1999;17:905-29.

16. Anton IM, Jones GE. WIP: a multifunctional protein
involved in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Eur J Cell
Biol 2006;85(3-4):295-304.

17. Lum LG, Tubergen DG, Corash L, Blease
RM. Splenectomy in the management of the
thrombocytopenia of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.
N Engl J Med 1980;302:892-96.

18. Antoine C, Muller S, Cant A, et al. Long-term
survival and transplantation of haemopoietic stem
cells for immunodefi ciencies: report of the European
experience 1968- 99. Lancet 2003;361:553-60.

19. Filipovich A, Stone J, Tomany S, et al. Impact of donor
type on outcome of bone marrow transplantation
for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: collaborative study of
the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry
and the National Marrow Donor Program. Blood

20. Kobayashi R, Ariga T, Nonoyama S, et al. Outcome
in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome following
stem cell transplantation: an analysis of 57 patients
in Japan. Br J Haematol 2006;135:362-66.

21. Ozsahin H, Le Deist F, Benkerrou M, et al. Bone
marrow transplantation in 26 patients with Wiskott-
Aldrich syndrome from a single center. J Pediatr

22. Pai SY, Demartiis D, Forino C, et al. Stem cell
transplantation for the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome:
a single-center experience confi rms effi cacy of
matched unrelated donor transplantation. Bone
Marrow Transplant 2006;38:671-79.

23. Ozsahin H, Cavazzana-Calvo M, Notarangelo LD,
et al. Long-term outcome following hematopoietic
stem-cell transplantation in Wiskott-Aldrich
syndrome: collaborative study of the European
Society for Immunodefi ciencies and European
Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Blood

24. Mathew LG, Chandy M, Dennison D,et al.
Successful bone marrow transplantation in an
infant with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Indian Pediatr

25. Wada T, Candotti F. Somatic mosaicism in primary
immune defi ciencies. Curr Opin Allergy Clin
Immunol 2008;8:510-14.

26. Cavazzana-Calvo M, Hacein-Bey S, de Saint Basile
G, et al. Gene therapy of human severe combined
immunodefi ciency (SCID)-X1 disease. Science

27. Ott MG, Schmidt M, Schwarzwaelder K, et al.
Correction of X-linked chronic granulomatous
disease by gene therapy, augmented by insertional
activation of MDS1-EVI1, PRDM16 or SETBP1.Nat
Med 2006;12:401-09.

28. Aiuti A, Cattaneo F, Galimberti F, et al. Long-term
safety and effi cacy of gene therapy for adenosine
deaminase (ADA)-defi cient severe combined
immunodefi ciency.N Engl J Med 2009;360:447-58.

29. Boztug K, Klein C, Avedillo-Diez I, et al. Hematopoitic
stem cell gene therapy for Wiskott Aldrich
Syndrome. Clinical Experimental Immunology
2008; 154(Suppl.1):12-13(O III-1).

30. Dupre L, Trifari S, Follenzi A, et al. Lentiviral vectormediated
gene transfer in T cells from Wiskott-
Aldrich syndrome patients leads to functional
correction. Mol Ther 2004;10:903-15.

How to cite this article ?

Kumar MK, Narayan R. Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome, often Missed: A Case Report and Review. J Nep Paedtr Soc

Category (Child Health)  |   Views (7778)  |  User Rating
Rate It

Browse Archive