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Category : All ; Cycle : January 2014
Medical Articles
Breast Cancer in Men

Breast cancer is often thought of as a condition that only affects women, but men can also develop it.
However, breast cancer in men is much less common than breast cancer in women.
The most common symptom of breast cancer in men is a hard, painless lump that the develops on one of the breasts.

When to see Dr. B C Shah

You should always visit Dr. B C Shah if you notice a lump in your breast, or you have symptoms that affect your nipples, such as retraction or discharge.
While these symptoms are unlikely to be the result of breast cancer, they should be investigated further.

Treating breast cancer in men

In most cases of breast cancer, surgery is used to remove a section of the breast. This is usually followed by a long-term course of hormone therapy using a medication called tamoxifen.
Tamoxifen helps to block the effects of hormones on breast tissue that are known to stimulate the growth of cancerous cells. It should help to prevent the cancer from returning.
In some cases, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy may be used for the same purpose.


The causes of breast cancer in men are unclear, but a number of risk factors for the condition have been indentified. These include:
Age – most cases of male breast cancer affect men who are over 70 years of age
Having a family history of breast cancer (both male or female)
Obesity - a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more
Alcohol consumption

Who is affected?

The average age of diagnosis is 71 years of age.


The outlook for breast cancer in men is less favourable than for breast cancer in women. This is because there is less awareness of the condition, so it often takes longer to diagnose.
Healthcare professionals assess the outlook for cases of cancer by measuring how many people survive for five years following the initial diagnosis. This is known as ‘the five year survival rate’. However, many men who are diagnosed with breast cancer survive for much longer than five years.
The estimated five year survival rate for:
Stage 1 breast cancer is 75-100%
Stage 2 to 3 breast cancer is 50-80%,
Stage 4 breast cancer is 30-60%

Symptoms of breast cancer in men

The most common symptom of breast cancer in men is usually a hard, painless lump in one of your breasts. However, in around 1 in 20 cases, the lump can be painful.
The lump is usually located underneath the nipple and areola (the circle of dark coloured skin that surrounds the nipple).
Less common symptoms of male breast cancer usually affect the nipple. These can include:
the nipple begins to turn in on itself (nipple retraction)
the nipple becomes hard, inflamed, and ‘sore looking’ (nipple ulceration)
fluid leaking from the nipple (nipple discharge)
Additional symptoms usually only develop if the cancer spreads from your breast to other parts of the body, such as your bones, liver or lungs. This is known as metastatic breast cancer.

Symptoms of metastatic breast cancer include:
Bone pain
Swelling of the lymph nodes (glands) near your breast; usually in, or around, the armpit
Shortness of breath
Feeling unusually tired all the time
Feeling sick (nausea)
Itchy skin

When to seek medical advice

You should always visit Dr. B C Shah if you notice a lump in your breast or if you have symptoms that affect your nipples, such as retraction, ulceration or discharge. While symptoms such as these are unlikely to be of the result of breast cancer, it is important that they are investigated further.

Causes of breast cancer in men

Cancer begins with an alteration to the coding information in cells that tells them when to grow and replicate. The code is read from the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is found in all human cells. A change in the code is called a mutation and can alter the instructions that control cell growth.
If a mutation occurs, the cells carry on growing instead of stopping when they should. The cells reproduce in an uncontrollable manner, producing a lump of tissue that is known as a tumour.

How cancer spreads

Left untreated, cancer can quickly grow and spread to other parts of your body. There are two ways that breast cancer can spread:
Directly - where the cancer spreads outs of the breast tissue into surrounding muscle and skin

Indirectly - where cancer cells spread via the blood or lymphatic system (see below) to more distant parts of the body, such as the lungs and liver

The lymphatic system is a series of glands (or nodes) that are distributed throughout your body in a system that is similar to the blood circulation system. The glands produce many of the specialised cells that are needed by your immune system.

Risk factors for breast cancer in men

It is not clear exactly what causes the DNA inside the cells of the male breast to behave in this manner. However, a number of risk factors that can increase your risk of breast cancer developing have been identified (see below).

Due to the rarity of breast cancer in men, even if you had most of the risk factors outlined below (with the exception of having Klinefelter's syndrome), your risk of developing the condition would still be very small.

Genetics and family history

A genetic mutation is where the instructions that are carried in all living cells become scrambled in some way which means that one or more of the body’s processes do not work in the way they should.
There are a number of genetic mutations known to increase your risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant mutation identified to date is known as the BRAC2 mutation. One study that was carried out in the UK found that 1 in 20 men with breast cancer have the BRAC2 mutation.
There is also evidence that breast cancer can run in families, as 1 in 5 men who develop breast cancer, have a first-degree relative, such as a mother or sister, who also has a history of breast cancer.

Oestrogen exposure

There is evidence that prolonged exposure to the hormone oestrogen can increase the risks of breast cancer in men.
Compared to women, men tend to have low levels of oestrogen, but there are a number of circumstances that can increase the levels of oestrogen in men.
These include:
Hormone treatments – man-made (synthetic) versions of oestrogen are often used to treat prostate cancer and are also given to transsexuals who are undergoing a male to female sex change
Obesity – obese men have higher levels of oestrogen than normal
There is also rare genetic condition called Klinefelter's syndrome where baby boys are born with much higher levels of oestrogen than normal. It is estimated that 1 in every 1,000 people are affected by Klinefelter's syndrome.
Klinefelter's syndrome is a major risk factor for breast cancer in men. Men who have the condition are 20 times more likely to develop breast cancer than the male population at large.

Occupational risks

There is evidence that men who work in hot environments are twice as likely to develop breast cancer compared with men who work in cooler environments. Environments that have been linked to an increase risk of breast cancer in men include:
Blast furnaces
Steel works
Rolling mills – a factory where metal (usually steel) is shaped using rollers
Car manufacturing plants
One theory to help explain the link between working environment and the increased risk of developing breast cancer is that excessive heat may damage the testicles, which could lead to an increase in oestrogen levels.
Another theory is that working in hot environments usually involves exposure to certain chemicals which may increase a the risk of developing breast cancer in men.
Rates of breast cancer are also unusually high in men who manufacture perfumes and soaps.
They are seven times more likely to develop breast cancer than the male population at large. The reason for this increased risk is still unclear, although exposure to certain chemicals seems to be an obvious, although as yet unproven, factor.


Exposure to radiation has been linked to an increased risk of developing breast cancer in men.
Research has found that men who received a course of radiotherapy (where high energy X-rays are used to kill cancerous cells) directed at the upper chest were seven times more likely to develop male breast cancer compared to the population at large.
However, it is important to put the increase risk in context. Even a seven-fold increase means that the chances of developing breast cancer is still very low at around 1 in 14,285.

Breast cancer in men – Diagnosis

If you have symptoms which might indicate breast cancer, such as a hard, painless lump in one of your breasts, Dr. B C Shah will carefully examine your breasts. During the examination, they will also be looking for other possible signs of male breast cancer, such as swollen lymph nodes (glands).
It is likely that your Dr. B C Shah will refer you for further tests. There are three tests that are used to help diagnose male breast cancer. These are:
A mammogram,
An ultrasound
A biopsy


A mammogram is a type of X-ray that can help determine whether there are any changes in breast tissue that could be the result of cancer.
During the mammogram procedure, a radiographer (a specialist in taking X-rays) will compress one of your breasts between two X-ray plates. This should not be painful, but you should tell the radiographer if you find it uncomfortable.
Once your breast has been correctly positioned, an X-ray will be taken which will produce a clear image of the inside of your breast. The procedure will then be carried out on your other breast.


Ultrasound uses high frequency sound waves to produce an image of the inside of your breasts (in the same way that an unborn baby can be seen in the womb).
An ultrasound probe or sensor will be placed over your breasts to create an image of the inside of your breasts on a screen. The image will highlight any lumps or abnormalities that may be present in your breasts.


A biopsy may be recommended if a mammogram or an ultrasound scan highlight any lumps or abnormalities in your breasts. A biopsy is a test that can either confirm or rule out a diagnosis of male breast cancer. It involves taking a sample of suspected cancerous tissue and examining it in a laboratory for the presence of cancerous cells.
A type of biopsy that is known as a core biopsy is usually recommended for the diagnosis of breast cancer in men. This type of biopsy can usually indicate whether the cancer has started to spread from the breast into the surrounding area, which is known as invasive breast cancer.
During a core biopsy, a local anaesthetic will be used to numb your breasts. A hollow needle will then be used to remove a number of small tissue samples from the breast lump.
If cancer is found, it will also be possible to check whether there are special proteins, known as oestrogen receptors, on the surface of the cancerous cells. This is important because if oestrogen receptors are found (they are in an around 90% of cases), it is possible to treat the cancer using a medication called tamoxifen.


After breast cancer has been diagnosed, your care team should be able to provide information about what stage your cancer is at.
Staging is a system that is used to describe how far a cancer has spread at the point of the diagnosis. The higher the stage, the more advanced the cancer and the further it has spread. The staging system for male breast cancer is outlined below.
Stage 1 - the cancerous tumour is less than 2cm (three quarters of an inch) across and there are no signs that the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes near the armpit.
Stage 2 - the cancerous tumour is 2-5cm (three quarters to two inches) across and/or there are signs that the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes near the armpit.
Stage 3 - the cancerous tumour is larger than 5cm (2 inches) across and has started to move into surrounding tissues, such as skin and muscle. Near-by lymph nodes are also affected but there is no sign that the cancer has spread beyond the breast and armpit.
Stage 4 - there are signs that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or bones. This is known as secondary, or metastatic, cancer.
A cure may be possible in cases of stage 1, 2 and 3 male breast cancer. In cases of stage 4 breast cancer, a cure is unlikely but it may be possible to control the symptoms and slow the spread of the cancer.

Coping with a diagnosis

Being told that you have breast cancer can cause a wide range of emotions, such as shock, fear, confusion and, in some cases, embarrassment.
Most people assume that breast cancer only affects women, so it can be difficult for many men to come to terms with the diagnosis.
Feelings of isolation and being alone are common in men with breast cancer. This may be because there is little in the way of advice and support for men with breast cancer, particularly when compared to the support that is available for women with the condition.
Sometimes, men who find themselves in this situation can become depressed. You may be depressed if during the past month you have felt very down and you are no longer interested in doing activities that you used to enjoy. If you think that you may be depressed, you should visit your Dr. B C Shah. There are a range of effective treatments, such as medication and counselling, that can help relieve feelings of depression.

Treating breast cancer in men

Many hospitals use multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) to treat breast cancer in men. MDTs are teams of specialists that work together to make decisions about the best way to proceed with your treatment.
Members of your MDT may include:
A surgeon
A clinical oncologist (a specialist in the non-surgical treatment of cancer)
A pathologist (a specialist in diseased tissue)
A radiologist (a doctor who specialises in analysing the results of imaging tests such as X-rays and ultrasound scans)
A dietitian
A social worker
A psychologist
As well as having a specialist MDT, you may also be assigned a key worker who will usually be a specialist nurse. They will be responsible for co-ordinating your care.
Deciding what treatment is best for you can often be confusing. Dr. B C Shah will recommend what he think is the best treatment option but the final decision will be yours.
Before visiting hospital to discuss your treatment options, you may find it useful to write a list of questions that you would like to ask the specialist. For example, you may want to find out the advantages and disadvantages of particular treatments.

Your treatment plan

Your recommended treatment plan will depend on how far the cancer has spread. If the cancer has not spread significantly beyond your breast (stage 3 or below), a complete cure may be possible.
Surgery to remove the affected breast is usually recommended followed by radiotherapy, hormone therapy and /or chemotherapy to help prevent the cancer returning.
If the cancer has spread beyond your breast into other parts of your body, such as your lungs (stage 4 breast cancer), a complete cure will not be possible. However, hormone therapy and chemotherapy can be used to relieve symptoms, slow down the spread of the cancer and prolong lifespan.


Surgery is the first treatment option that is often recommended for breast cancer and usually involves an operation called a modified radical mastectomy. This is where Dr. B C Shah removes the entire breast as well as the lymph nodes (glands) in the armpit.
Once surgery has been completed there will be a scar where your nipple used to be and an indentation in your chest where the breast tissue was.
It is possible to have reconstructive surgery after having a modified radical mastectomy. Tissue can be taken from other parts of your body, such as your lower abdomen or buttocks, and be used to recreate the shape of the breast.
An alternative option is to use breast implants that are similar to those that are used in cosmetic surgery. However, they are obviously much smaller. In many cases, reconstructive surgery can be carried out immediately after a mastectomy has been performed.
It is also possible to restore the appearance of a nipple by having a tattoo on your chest. ‘Nipple tattoos’ can be created in around 30 to 40 minutes and have a very realistic appearance.
You should discuss the various options for reconstructive surgery with Dr. B C Shah.

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Melbourne researchers have developed cows’ milk that protects human cells from HIV.The milk contains antibodies which defend against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).The next step will be to develop it into a cream which women can apply to protect themselves from contracting HIV from sexual partners.
Melbourne University’s Dr Marit Kramski and colleagues found that using cows to produce HIV-inhibiting antibodies is cheaper than existing methods.They worked with Australian biotechnology company Immuron Ltd to develop the milk. The scientists vaccinated pregnant cows with an HIV protein and studied the first milk that cows produced after giving birth.

The first milk, called the colostrum, is naturally packed with antibodies to protect the newborn calf from infections. The vaccinated cows produced HIV antibodies in their milk.“We were able to harvest antibodies specific to the HIV surface protein from the milk,” said Marit, who is presenting her research this week as one of the winners of Fresh Science — a national program for early-career scientists.“We have tested these antibodies and found in our laboratory experiments that they bind to HIV and that this inhibits the virus from infecting and entering human cells,” she said.Cows cannot contract HIV. But their immune systems develop antibodies against the foreign protein.

The HIV-inhibiting antibodies from cows’ milk will be developed into a cream called a microbicide that is applied into the vagina before and /or after sex to protect women from contracting sexually transmitted infections. Other microbicides are being developed around the world but the antibodies in this research are easier and cheaper to produce, providing a new HIV-prevention strategy.

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We all know why it's important to take your HIV medications every day. It keeps the virus in check, keeps you healthy and decreases your chances of becoming resistant to the meds.But for most people, taking HIV medications every day as prescribed isn't the easiest thing to do.And anyone who says otherwise is lying. The reality is that everyday life brings with it obstacles that can block the way between you and your meds.
1.FORGETTNESS;How many times have you looked up and exclaimed, "Darn, I forgot to take my meds!" This happens more often than people admit. But remembering to take your meds is the key to compliance.The key to remembering is tailoring your meds to your schedule.
2.FINANCE: Many time your cash doesnot allow to purchase it in time as job may be lost or other emergency condition even in USA/UK Insurance doesnot support it fully but IN INDIA/AFRICA PROVIDED BY ART CENTRES ALL OVER COUNTRY IF POOR CANOT AFFORD privately register with THese ART centres and donot forget to get new pack of Medicine in time submitting old used pack.
3.Side effects of Medicine:These are some time alarming bt donot stop medicines but talking to physician will help out to move to new medicines or alleviate complications by adding some medicines ,nausea,vomiting,diarrhoes,skin rashes,dementia, jandice, lipidostrophy,anaemia,bone marrow depression,infections,kidney and liver failure are some importnat side effects
4.NO FIXED RESIDENCE/MIGRATION ;As Hiv persons are mostly poor and walk from one place to other for their living and earning so they forget to purchase medicines bt in India /Africa ART centres provide sch facilities if with ART book you may go any where and ask for medicines prior permission from place of living to going is more important too and should be done to check misuse of medicines.
5.FAMILY RESPONSIBILITY:Poor HIV / Aids patient has to run family ,many house hold works and social responsibility so he decides to off the medicine bt it is dangerous please adjust your need and donot stop it and if free from ART CENTRE THEN NEVER MISS IT.
6.DEPRESSION & MENTAL AGOINY; Mental health issues are not uncommon for people living with HIV. Stigma, isolation and rejection can lead to depression and if that depression goes untreated, it can deeply impact your ability to adhere to your medications. Even worse: Depression in the HIV community is massively underdiagnosed.

HIV care providers need to step up and screen better for mental health issues. But that doesn't mean that you can't open up and talk to your provider about how you are feeling emotionally, especially if those feelings are a factor in why you are not taking your medicine.

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Sebaceous Cyst Removal
Sebaceous cysts (epidermal cysts) may be a foreign term to you, but many women have indeed experienced them — perhaps without really knowing what they were at the time.
Sebaceous cysts are small lumps or bumps just under the skin. To be more specific, they are closed sacs that contain keratin — a "pasty" or "cheesy" looking protein that often has a foul odor.
Although they are usually found on the face, neck, and trunk, they also occur in the vaginal area or other parts of the genitalia. In cases of the latter, it is not uncommon for women to fear that they are the result of genital herpes. But genital herpes create a blister-type sore that eventually becomes crusty, not just a bump or lump under the skin.

What Causes Sebaceous Cysts?
Sebaceous cysts are often the result of swollen hair follicles or skin trauma.

Symptoms and Signs/Symptoms of Infection

Sebaceous cysts are usually painless, slow-growing, small bumps or lumps that move freely under the skin. It's important not to touch or try to remove the substance inside to prevent tenderness, swelling, and infection of a sebaceous cyst.
Occasionally, infections may occur. Signs or symptoms that may indicate infection of sebaceous cysts include:
Increased temperature of the skin over the bumps or lumps
Greyish white, cheesy, foul-smelling material draining from the bump or lump

How Are Sebaceous Cysts Diagnosed ?

Sebaceous cysts, to the trained eye, are usually easily diagnosed by their appearance. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to rule out other conditions with a similar appearance. You should see your doctor to get a formal diagnosis if you suspect that you have a sebaceous cyst.

Treatments for Sebaceous Cysts

Sebaceous cysts most often disappear on their own and are not dangerous. As stated, however, they may become inflamed and tender. Sometimes sebaceous cysts grow large enough that they may interfere with your everyday life. When this happens, surgical removal may be necessary, and this procedure can be done at your doctor's office. Small inflamed cysts can often be treated with an injection of steroid medications or with antibiotics.

Complications of Sebaceous Cysts

If sebaceous cysts become infected, they can form into painful abscesses.
The surgical removal of a sebaceous cyst that does not involve the excision of the entire sac may cause the cyst to come back (although, recurrence is not usual).
Remember to consult Dr. B C Shah anytime you notice any type of growth, bump, or lump on your body. Although sebaceous cysts are not dangerous, your doctor should examine you to ensure that another more dangerous concern is not present.

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IN INDIA HIV /AIDS MOST PATIENTS ARE YOUNG AS few patients reach in old age above 50 as few continue medicines for very long but still many have cossed 55 by good life style and regular HIV medicines buy in USA By 2015, half of all New Yorkers living with HIV will be over 50 and in 2017, the same will be true of the entire United States.GMHC created social media campaigns directed at older people to address this need. Our “HIV is Ageless” campaign utilized images of men and women over 50 showing this demographic people who look just like them.We know HIV can infect a person at any age and that people over 50 have sex. We must be proactive in talking with our ‘eldersexuals’ about safer sex and the importance of getting tested.”

Medical research indicates that HIV accelerates the aging process. While we are still learning about the impact of anti-retroviral medications on the body, researchers have seen increased liver and kidney problems, higher incidences of cancer, depression, bone loss, frailty and some cognitive impediments among older people living with HIV and AIDS.

Beside awareness among these people for protected sex among themselves of same age or with younger partners use of condom is must beside prep medicine to partner.Following special care they need beside regular medicines with monitoring side effects of medicines or complication of disease.These care mostly provided in developed world but in our country too their good nutrition,psychosocial and working economical rehabilitation and mental support,providing regular medicines looking for BONE,FOOD INTAKE,RESPIRATORY DISEASES,LIVER,KIDNEY,SKIN AND CANCER IS MUST WHICH ARE MORE SEEN AS SIDE EFFECT OF DRUG OR COMPLICATION OF HIV ITSELG IN THIS OLD AGE
Nutrition Education:
GOOD NUTRITION AND EXCERCISE BOOSTUP IMMUNITY SO Certified and trained nutritionists provide counseling and enrollment in the food pantry program. Registered dieticians offer one-on-one counseling for clients who are interested in improving their health and quality of life through proper diet and nutrition.
Wellness Services:
Utilizing a holistic approach to client wellness, the Wellness center offers a variety of free, volunteer-led therapies and services, giving clients access to activities that may be otherwise unobtainable for those living with financial limitations, including yoga, massage therapy and exercise classes.

Mental Health Services:
GMHC provides individual, group and family counseling services to clients over fifty, which are always tailored to the client’s unique presentation of needs, and guided by treatment plans that are collaboratively developed. Common issues addressed by our mental health team involve adjustment to change, depression, anxiety, loss, grief, relationships, addictions and body image/esteem.
Advocacy and Benefits:
GMHC assists seniors daily in navigating their health care benefits and entitlement questions. An entire white paper about resources and needs of this population that is quickly becoming the majority of our HIV + population was written in preparation for this shift in population .

HIV Testing:
GMHC’s Geffen Center provides testing to people over the age of forty-five years, by providing point-of- care HIV rapid tests. Confirmatory tests are provided onsite on the same day preliminary positive results are given. Linkage to care is also initiated as soon as a preliminary positive result is given. Utilizing our Mobile Testing Unit, HIV Testing is offered at a number of NORC’s (Naturally Occurring Communities), and Testing is always available onsite at GMHC’s Center for HIV Prevention.


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First time FDA in US approved a pill called Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir) as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV in Negative persons like Sex partners of HOmosexuals and Heterosexals ,New born orchildrens or relatives and family members living in close contact with HIV positive very much exposed to HIV patients.
This is a good tool as now A PILL HAS BEEN USED AS PRE EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXSIS DRUG OR MEDICINE BT IT did not lead HIV-negative people in a large study to take increased sexual risks, although there are caveats to these findings,
Reuters reports. Approved in 2012 as an HIV prevention tool that can reduce the risk of transmission by more than 90 percent if used correctly, the antiretroviral has remained controversial,and sparsely used, in no small part because of concerns that it will lead to what is known as risk compensation. This phenomenon takes place when an individual responds to an intervention that lowers the risk of a harm by in turn exposing him or herself to greater risk of that harm—in this case, by having more unprotected sex or having sex with greater numbers of partners, for example. Such increased risk-taking could in theory negate the benefit of PrEP and also lead to the spread of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Researchers at the Gladstone Institutes, an affiliate of the University of California, San Francisco, built upon their three-year 2010 Global iPrEx clinical study of Truvada as PrEP. Publishing their findings in PLOS ONE, they re-examined data of the nearly 2,500 HIV-negative gay men and male-to-female transgender women in six countries who participated, looking specifically at those who reported believing that they were not in the half of the study taking the placebo and also that the drug was working. Theoretically,those who believed to be on an effective HIV prophylaxis therapy would be more inclined toward risk compensation, but the investigators did not find this to be the case. In fact, the group’s behavior trended toward safer-sex practices. The rates of new HIV infections dropped four-fold. Syphilis rates fell as well.
Therefore,It has been concluded that this drug cannot be taken as CONVENTIONAL PILL USE IT AT A TIME OF SEX AND THROW AS CONDOM but has to be taken daily over months after a good medical checkup whether this drug or any other ARV MEDICINES can be used as prophylaxsis and its long term use need monitoring these persons clinically and by other investigations to ascertain whether any complication developing in them as we monitor HIV patients and with it more stress to protection by use of condom,Avoiding sex with multiple parteners,personal sexual Hygeine and protection from Blood or other secretions is a must if only PILLS TAKEN AND MULTIPLE SEX WITHOUT SAFE PRECATIONS IS DONE THEN IT MAY NOT RESLT IN BENEFIT AT ALL.
SO CONDOM AND GOOD LIVING STYLE IS BEST METHOD TP PREVENT HIV AND OTHER STDs this pill is very helpful but should be taken with above precautions too.

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Concern From UNAIDS, Global Fund,NACO for LGBT Law in NIGERIA ,UGANDA & INDIA-profdrram
Concern From UNAIDS, Global Fund,NACO for LGBT Law in NIGERIA ,UGANDA & INDIA


The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria ,NATIONAL AIDS CONTROL ORGANISATION, INDIA express deep concern over a new law in Nigeria,Uganda and India that further criminalizes LGBT people, organizations and activities, as well as people who support them, according to statement issed by these organisations that htese organizations are concerned that the law will adversely affect access to HIV services, including prevention and treatment, for LGBT PEOPLE. In 2011, all U.N. member states committed to removing legal barriers and passing laws to protect people affected by HIV.
It is a tre fact that in GAY people HIV has been encountered more in these countries than HIV Prevalence in general people where it is reduced,such law will frther force,GAY people and other community of LGBT to seek treatment as Polcie and administartion will catch hold of them and so they will run way form diagnosis ,investigation and treatment.
Similiarly MSM people or lesbians and transgenders and Bisexuals and Hinzras are already discriminated and stigmatised in our society and now they will be more afraid to come in society so NAAZ foundation has reppealed in court to withdraw 377 rulings in INDIA.

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A colonoscopy is an internal examination of the colon (large intestine) and rectum, using an instrument called a colonoscope.

The colonoscope has a small camera attached to a flexible tube that can reach and examine the entire length of the colon.

How the Test is Performed

You will usually be given medicine into a vein to help you relax and not feel any discomfort. You will be awake during the test and may even be able to speak, but you will likely not remember anything.

You will lie on your left side with your knees drawn up toward your chest. The colonoscope is inserted through the anus. It is gently moved into the beginning of the large bowel and slowly moved as far as the lowest part of the small intestine.

Air will be inserted through the scope to provide a better view. Suction may be used to remove fluid or stool.

Because Dr. B C Shah gets a better view as the colonoscope is pulled back out, a more careful examination is done while the scope is being pulled out. Tissue samples may be taken with tiny biopsy forceps inserted through the scope. Polyps may be removed with snares, and photographs may be taken.

Specialized procedures, such as laser therapy, may also be done.

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Scientists are now testing a drug that could boost women’s desire for sex and also help them lose weight.With four in ten women saying that their sex life has lost its sizzle at some point, and Viagra already making over 2.5 billion dollars a year, drug companies have long tried to create a female version.

The drug, which acts on the brain to increase desire, is a synthetic version of melatonin, a hormone usually associated with tanning.Melatonin also has a role to play in libido – and appetite.The new tablet form is more convenient and has fewer side-effects. The pills could cause nausea, and regulators will have to be satisfied that they are not addictive.

The company plans to carry out three worldwide studies to measure the effects on women. If they show it to be safe and effective, the drug could be on sale in the UK by the end of 2015.Taken 15 minutes before sex, the tablets could boost libido for more than two hours. Studies of a jab with a similar formula showed it led to satisfying sex more often and while the pills are designed to increase sexual desire, they may also curb appetite.
How does regular Viagra work?Does it help woman:
Viagra is a wonder drug that has brought sex and confidence back into the lives of many men suffering from erectile dysfunction. It works by improving the blood flow to the genitals thereby facilitating an erection. It does so by blocking an enzyme called PDE5 in the penis. Viagra isn’t actually a drug which helps with arousal. It just improves the blood flow when you’re aroused. Most women face sexual arousal problems for a variety of reasons. Menopause, stress, and seeing their children go away are just some of the reasons for their loss of interest in sex. Some experts believed that Viagra should work similarly for women (the way it does for men), engorging the clitoris and making sex more pleasurable.
A research team separated two groups of women with sexual arousal problems. One group was given the blue pill, the other was simply given a placebo. The research showed that women, who took Viagra, achieved sexual satisfaction more often than those who simply took the placebo. However, the US FDA does not approve the use of conventional Viagra for women.

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512 stones found in Gall bladder
(Dr. B C Shah recently performed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy on Mr. N_____ G______ who had 512 stones!)

Mr. N_____ G______ came to me with history of chronic pain in upper abdomen. The pain would get aggravated after meals. His sonography revealed that his gall bladder was distended & full of stones. I performed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy on him. It was a difficult case as there were lot of adhesions. The gall bladder was delivered successfully It was a pleasant surprise to find 512 stones in the Gall Bladder.

One often wonders as to why patients wait so long. Many times patients come to me with Gall Stones. Often they have only one small stone. The common question asked is "Do I still need surgery for just a small stone?"

As per my observation of last 23 years, one stone or many stones – all have a potential to create complications including even death. Its not just the numbers or size. One small stone can just simply slip into the bile duct and is sufficient to trigger Pancreatitis. I personally know of a patient who developed severe pancreatitis due to a 3 mm small stone. She battled for two months in one of the best hospitals in Mumbai and ultimately died.

In kidney stones, one of the criteria on which the therapy is based is the number of stones and its size. Smaller stones can pass out spontaneously and the patient's problem gets solved naturally. However, this is not the situation with gall stones. A gall stone or its fragment passing out can be dangerous as it can cause blockage of bile in liver or swelling in pancreas. Such complications can occur any time and no doctor on earth can predict when this will occur.

Many patients wait for the stones to grow and multiply. Surely this has a potential of inviting big untimely trouble. Don't wait. There are no warning signs.As far as records go, the largest number of gallstones removed was 3,110 in an open surgery in Britain in 1983, reported in the Guinness Book of World Records.

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