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Medical Articles
Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis Analysis by Radiographic Mean for Vertical Reconstruction Of Alveolar Ridge: A Novel Research Approach.
Author : Dr. Naqoosh Haidry, Dr. Ritesh Raj, Dr.Brijesh Byrappa, Dr. Amit Kumar, Dr. Manish Kumar, Dr. Anshu Prakash

Aim and objective: The aim and objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of alveolar distraction osteogenesis technique radiographically for vertical reconstruction of atrophy alveolar ridges in partially edentulous patients.

Materials and Methods: A total of 120 vertical distraction osteogenesis procedures were performed in110 patients. Two panoramic radiographies were performed in all patients, one the day before the beginning of distraction, and one after consolidation period, 18 weeks postoperatively. The radiographic analysis consisted of obtaining the amount of the vertical bone gain in each radiography. For this, we
obtained initially the magnification factor of each panoramic radiography by dividing the real size of the activation rod among the image size of the activation rod. After this, to obtain the VGB, we measured initially the length of the distractonpre activation (LD1), which consisted of the distance between the superior portion of the basal plate and the superior portion of the transport plate, multiplying by the
magnification factor. Then, we measured the length of the distraction postactivation (LD2), using the same method described before, in radiographies performed 12 weeks postoperatively. The vertical bone gain was obtained using the following formula: vertical bone gain = LD2 — LD1. The results were applied to descriptive statistical analysis.Complications were also investigated during all of the treatments.

Results: The mean alveolar distraction achieved in 120 cases was 7.21 (range, 0 to 10.83 mm). According to the region treated, 50.8% were in the posterior mandible (mean vertical bone gain , 4.60 mm, DP: 2.04), 37.68% were in the anterior maxilla (mean vertical bone gain,7.46 mm, DP: 2.28), 7.33% were in the anterior mandible (mean vertical bone gain, 6.73 mm, DP: 2.04), and 4.33% were in the posterior maxilla (mean vertical bone gain, 6.32 mm, DP:2.65).

Conclusions: The Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis technique was demonstrated to be an effective tool to treat vertical defects of the alveolar ridge with a success rate of 92.64%. Our radiographic analysis seems to be an important tool in verifying the technique as well as planning implant placement after Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis.

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A Comparative Study of the Effect of Primary and Secondary Closure Technique Following Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars
Author : Naqoosh Haidry, Ritesh Raj, Sandeep Kashyap, Brijesh Byrappa, Amit Kumar, Ankur Singh

Introduction: Surgical removal of the impacted mandibular
third molar is one of the most frequently performed surgical
procedures in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The purpose of
this study was to compare the primary and secondary wound
closure after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third
molars by evaluating the extent of facial swelling, the severity
of pain and degree of trismus.

Material and Methods: A prospective, randomized,
clinical trial was conducted in 80 patients. The patients were
randomly divided into two groups of 40 each. In Group 1:
patients underwent primary closure of the wound and in
Group 2: patients underwent secondary closure of the wound.
Postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus were evaluated on
the 2nd and 7th day postoperatively.

Results: Statistically significant difference was observed for
facial swelling and trismus on 2nd postoperative days between
both groups. Postoperative pain was less in the secondary
closure group.

Conclusion: From the outcome of the above study we can
conclude that the secondary wound closure technique has a
significant advantage over primary wound closure concerning
swelling and trismus.

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Ameloblastic Fibrodentinoma - A Case Report
Author: Mamatha NS, Rohit S, R Narahari* and Brijesh Byrappa

The Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma (AFD) is a minor variation of an Ameloblastic fibroodontoma with a predominant dentin formation. It is a rare mixed odontogenic tumour composed of neoplastic odontogenic epithelium and mesenchyme with dentin. This paper presents a rare case of Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma in the anterior mandible, which was excised and post-operative recovery was uneventful.

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Surgical Management of Infected Radicular Cyst Using Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF), Synthetic Bone Graft and Periodontal Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration: A Case report
Author: Dr. Brijesh Byrappa, Dr. Narahari Ranganatha, Dr. Mohammed Yunus, Dr. Ragesh Raman, Dr. Mamatha, N.S., Dr. Arun, K.P.

Radicular cysts are most common asymptomatic lesions of the jaw, it comprises up to 68% of cysts in the region. Large cyst of the jaw necessitate surgical management to obtain bone regeneration and healing of periapical tissues. Use of patients own blood components such as platelet rich fibrin (PRF) to enhance healing is unique concept in oral surgery. Through this case report we would like to illustrate the effectiveness of PRF mixed with synthetic bone substitute for guided bone regeneration in bone defect resulting from a periapical cyst enucleation. The treatment outcome of this case report shows that a combination of synthetic bone graft and PRF is successful in accelerating the physiological healing.

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Clinical application of diode laser in gingival hyperpigmentation to enhance aesthetics
Author: Dr. Brijesh Byrappa, Dr. Zainab Abubaker, Dr. Swathi Mani, Dr. Narahari Ranganatha and Dr. Mohammed Yunus

Patients are highly inclined towards aesthetic outlook in the recent years. More number of patients visit dental offices with the complaint of greyish-black gums. The core reason for this pigmentation of the gingiva is due to the melanoblastic activity. There are wide range of treatment options for depigmentation of the gingiva. They include scalpel gingivectomy, free gingival graft, bur abrasion, use of chemicals, electrosurgery, cryosurgery and lasers. Among the various techniques, lasers provide promising therapeutic option as they are simple, painless, effective and a reliable tool. Here, we report gingival depigmentation of a patient using diode laser technique.

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Capillary haemangioma on the palate: a diagnostic conundrum
Haemangiomas are benign tumours of blood vessel origin and are classified as capillary, cavernous or central. They appear as flat or raised reddish-blue lesions and are generally solitary, affecting women in younger age groups. The tumour may be slowly progressive, involving extensive portions of the superficial and deep blood vessels, and affect function, depending on location. They are common in the head and neck region but rarely in the oral cavity. Oral lesions generally appear on the lips, buccal mucosa and tongue, but rarely on the palate. As the lesion can be confused with pyogenic granuloma, histopathological examination is important for a final diagnosis. The case presented here signifies a rare location of a capillary haemangioma on the palate in a middle aged man. The lesion was diagnosed by histopathology after surgical excision.

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Local Drug Delivery Modalities in Treatment of Periodontitis: A Review
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that causes destruction of tooth supporting tissues, characterized by multifactorial etiology with pathogenic bacteria being the primary etiologic agents that dwells the subgingival area. Local drug delivery system consists of antimicrobial dosages that produces more constant and prolonged concentration profiles within the subgingival tissue and provides better access into the periodontal pockets. It addresses the critical distress of exposing the patient to adverse effects of systemic administration. This article reviews the literature and presents novel trends such as osteoblast activators, growth factors, and herbal products in the local drug delivery system.

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Rural Oral Dental Care in indian Village
Discussion & awareness of home Oral Hygiene Care tips with villagers a glimpse : Gursahaiganj Dsitrict Kannauj Uttar Pradesh India.

The key to keeping a bright, healthy smile throughout adulthood is to practice proper oral hygiene. Adults can get cavities, as well as gum disease that can lead to serious problems. Throughout your adult life, it's important to continue to:Brush twice a day with fluoride toothpaste to remove dental plaque – the sticky film on your teeth that's the main cause of tooth decay and inflammation of the gums, called gingivitis.

Floss daily to remove plaque from between your teeth and under your gum line, before it can harden into tartar. Once tartar has formed, it can only be removed by a dental hygienist during a professional cleaning.

Limit sugary or starchy foods, especially sticky snacks. The more often you snack between meals, the more chances you give bacteria to create the acids that attack your tooth enamel.

Visit your dentist regularly for professional cleanings and checkups.

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Missing teeth
This paper presents a case report of a nineteen year old male patient who reported to the dental clinic with a chief complaint of pain in his upper left back tooth. The patient was in good health and his prenatal and post natal history was uneventful. The child was born to non consanguineous parents. His medical history was non-relevant. There was no history of extractions or any oral surgical procedures. The dentition of the parents and sibling were normal. Details of family history revealed absence of any sign, symptom or disease in his cousins/relatives.A complete medical examination was done to rule out any systemic abnormality. The general and physical examination of hair, nails, sweat glands, eyes, and cheeks showed no positive findings. No significant abnormality was revealed in extra oral examination. Upon intra oral examination, the entire mucosa appeared apparently normal.
The hard tissue examination revealed certain findings. The maxillary arch showed the deciduous molars are retained on both the sides and the upper left third molar is visible only as a slight single cusp. On clinical examination, retained deciduous maxillary left first molar (64) and right second molar (55) with dentinal caries were found. There was no evidence of mobility with retained deciduous molars. The other teeth present in the oral cavity were of normal size, shape and color. The clinical photograph of mandibular arch showed retained deciduous molars only on the left side whereas on right side there was normal eruption of the premolars.

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Review on Vertical root fractures of teeth
Vertical root fractures are often being misdiagnosed or remain unrecognized because of either lack of specific signs and symptoms and/or typical radiographic features. Reaching to a correct diagnosis of the condition, thereby, planning an appropriate treatment becomes a responsibility of a dental practitioner. The clinician must be able to interpret the subjective and objective findings that suggest a ver¬tical root fracture and be able to make a prediction as to the eventual potential of healing. The use of current developments in various disciplines of dentistry has made it possible to treat these fractures more efficiently than before. The long-term prognosis has yet to be proven in those cases where successful outcomes have been claimed. This article reviews various etiologic factors, simulating clinical and radiographic conditions, and an appropriate diagnosis of vertical root fractures along with their treatment modalities.

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