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Jul22
TITLE : STUDY OF SERUM MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM STATUS IN HYPOKALEMIC DISORDERS
AIM OF THE STUDY:
Primary 1. Association of serum Ca++, Mg++ level in cases of hypokalemic disorder.
Secondary 2. Response of treatment with potassium supplementation and Mg++ and Ca++ requirement.

MATERIAL AND METHOD:
Fifty cases of hypokalemia, most of them having history of hypokalemic periodic palsy, were taken for study, in department of medicine for November 2003 to April 2005. Detail clinical history, physical examinations and routine laboratory investigations done including mandatory serum Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++. The laboratory investigation of serum electrolytes were repeated after 2-3 days of K+ supplementation and in resistant hypokalemic cases with magnesium deficiency, Mg++ supplementation was given first and then Ca++ supplementation in combined Ca++ deficiency cases.

OBSERVATION:
Out of the 50 patients, 25% were males (30-60 years), 40% were females 18-40 years. Commonest presentation were paraplegia (75%), Quadriplegia (25%), vomiting (20%), Hicough (4%), Tetany (2%), Bradycardia (6%), Paralytic ileus (2%) and various ECG changes ie. U wave, increased PR interval, decreased T wave etc. Most of the patients belonged to low socio-economic status and most of them were physical labourers. In moderate to severe hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia was commonly present ( 64%) and hypocalcaemia (28%). Most of these cases responded to K+ supplementation but in some cases with severe hypokalemia associated with hypomagnesemia and hypocalcaemia were resistant to K+ supplementation. In these cases long with K+ , Mg+ supplementation was given, after which patients responded rapidly and satisfactorily. Dramatic improvement was seen in the power of limbs after supplementation of K+. However n 6% patients no significant improvement was seen after 2-3 days and Mg+ was supplemented orally after which there was improvement in power of limbs and serum K+ level rapidly.
Hypokalemia Hypomagnesemia Hypocalcemia
Mild (3.0-3.5 meq/l) 3(6%) 0(0%)
Moderate (2.5 – 3.0 meq/l) 7(14%) 6(12%)
Severe(<2.5 meq/l) 22(44%) 8(16%)

(Incidence of Hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia according to severity of hypokalemia)

CONCLUSION:
It was observed that in hypokalemic disorders there is derangement of other electrolytes (i.e Serum , Mg++, Ca++). In moderate to severe hypokalemia estimation of serum Mg++ and Ca++ is mandatory and Mg++ replacement should be done after K+ supplementation and before Ca++ supplementation in combined electrolyte disorders to avoid arrythmia.


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