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Periodontal Disease: A Possible Risk-Factor for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome
Bacterial invasion in subgingival sites especially of gram-negative
organisms are initiators for periodontal diseases. The periodontal
pathogens with persistent infl ammation lead to destruction of
periodontium. In recent years, periodontal diseases have been
associated with a number of systemic diseases such as rheumatoid
arthritis, cardiovascular-disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic
respiratory diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes including
pre-term low-birth weight (PLBW) and pre-eclampsia. The factors
like low socio-economic status, motherís age, race, multiple births,
tobacco and drug-abuse may be found to increase risk of adverse
pregnancy outcome. However, the same are less correlated with
PLBW cases. Even the invasion of both aerobic and anerobic may
lead to infl ammation of gastrointestinal tract and vagina hence
contributing to PLBW. The biological mechanism involved between
PLBW and Maternal periodontitis is the translocation of chemical
mediators of infl ammation. Pre-eclampsia is one of the commonest
cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity as it is characterized by
hypertension and hyperprotenuria. Improving periodontal health
before or during pregnancy may prevent or reduce the occurrences
of these adverse pregnancy outcomes and, therefore, reduce the
maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Hence, this article
is an attempt to review the relationship between periodontal
condition and altered pregnancy outcome.
Key Words: Adverse pregnancy outcome, periodontal disease, preeclampsia,
pregnancy, pre-term low-birth weight

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