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Causes For Recurrent Miscarriage
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL) is defined as the loss of two or more pregnancies. It excludes ectopic pregnancy and molar pregnancy. Around one percent of all women experience recurrent miscarriages. Doctors define this as- “Loss of consecutive two or more 1st trimester or early 2nd trimester pregnancies”.

Having one miscarriage can be very much disturbing for the couple, but having one after another is often a very traumatic experience. Women with repeated miscarriages can be reassured that their chance of having a healthy baby is the same as women who have never miscarried, says Eminent Gynaecologist and Fertility Expert from Blossom Fertility and IVF Centre Dr Rupal Nirav Shah.

Investigations to find out possible reason for recurrent miscarriage is advisable after the third recurrent miscarriage, but in women of more than 30 years, investigations are advised even after 2 abortions. In more than 50% cases, it’s impossible for doctors to identify the cause for recurrent miscarriage.

Causes For Recurrent Miscarriage:

1.Hormonal: Polycystic ovaries, Thyroid dysfunction
2.Blood clotting disorders
3.Genetic: any one partner with an abnormal chromosome
4.Uterine problems: abnormally shaped uterus, intra-uterine adhesions
5.Male Factor: abnormal DNA fragments in sperms
6.Poor quality eggs
7.Cervical weakness(Incompetence)
Causes 1 to 6 are usually responsible for 1st trimester and 7 is responsible for 2nd trimester repeated miscarriages.

Apart from these causes, there are Environmental influences too. Though these may not lead to repeated miscarriages, they may increase chances of abortions.

How to diagnose Chances for Recurrent Miscarriage?

1. Hormonal and immunology blood workup
2. Genetic study of male and female and in selected cases of abortus.
3. 3 D sonography, Hysterosalpinography or hysteroscopy to study shape of uterus

The over prescribed TORCH infection test is not important to diagnose cause for repeated miscarriage as this may be a cause for a single miscarriage.

What are your chances of having a healthy baby after recurrent miscarriage?

If your miscarriages are unexplained, then you have a good chance of having a successful pregnancy in the future. Only close tender loving care(TLC) by your obstetrician and closed relatives can increase your chances of a successful pregnancy. Many hormonal and immunological conditions conditions are treatable. Your gynaecologist is the best person, whom you can discuss about your chances of success. Women with a history of recurrent miscarriage are at risk of developing preeclampsia in later pregnancies.

When there is no reason found and you don’t want to take any chance Pre-implantation genetic screening is a good option in which, selected cytogenetically normal embryos are transferred in uterus to avoid bad news again with help of IVF treatment.

Sometimes repeated miscarriages are because of Chromosomal Abnormality in any of partners, then IVF with donor eggs or sperms is the best solution.

At Blossom Fertility and IVF Centre before suggesting any treatment for repeated pregnancy loss, couples are first evaluated to see if there is an underlying health condition that may be causing multiple miscarriages and for which treatment is available. These include uterine abnormalities, such as fibroids, blood-clotting disorders, hormonal problems, thyroid disease or diabetes. Obesity and age can also increase the risk of miscarriage. Before suggesting any treatment all this factors are evaluated.

Get in touch today to have a successful pregnancy despite recurrent pregnancy loss - Recurrent miscarriage - For Quick Response Call us on +91 99799 46222 Contact us at

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How can an Ectopic Pregnancy be treated?
Ectopic pregnancy is when a pregnancy grows outside of your uterus, usually in your fallopian tube. Ectopic pregnancies are rare but serious, and they need to be treated.

Whats an ectopic pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilised egg implants and grows outside the main cavity of the uterus. Pregnancy begins with a fertilised egg. Normally, the fertilised egg attaches to the lining of the uterus.

Ectopic Pregnancy: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments

Normal pregnancies develop inside your uterus, after a fertilised egg travels through your fallopian tube and attaches to your uterine lining. Ectopic pregnancy is when a fertilised egg attaches somewhere else in your body, usually in your fallopian tube thats why its sometimes called tubal pregnancy.

Ectopic pregnancies are rare it happens in about 2 out of every 100 pregnancies. But theyre very dangerous if not treated. Fallopian tubes can break if stretched too much by the growing pregnancy this is sometimes called a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. This can cause internal bleeding, infection, and in some cases lead to death.

Ectopic Pregnancy Symptoms

You may not notice anything at first. However, some women with an ectopic pregnancy have the usual early signs or symptoms of pregnancy a missed period, breast tenderness and nausea.

If you take a pregnancy test, the result will be positive. Still, an ectopic pregnancy cant continue as normal.

Signs and symptoms increase as the fertilised egg grows in the improper place.

Early warning of ectopic pregnancy

Often, the first warning sign of an ectopic pregnancy is pelvic pain. Light vaginal bleeding may also occur.

If blood leaks from the fallopian tube, you may feel increasing abdominal pain, an urge to have a bowel movement or pelvic discomfort. If heavy bleeding (hemorrhaging) occurs, you may feel shoulder pain as blood fills your pelvis and abdomen. Your specific symptoms depend on where the blood collects and which nerves are irritated.

Emergency symptoms during ectopic pregnancy

If the fertilised egg continues to grow in the fallopian tube, it can cause the tube to rupture. Heavy bleeding inside the abdomen is likely. Symptoms of this life-threatening event include extreme lightheadedness, fainting, severe abdominal pain and shock.

It is important to contact your doctor immediately if you are experiencing sharp pain that lasts more than a few minutes or if you have bleeding.

Ectopic pregnancies are diagnosed by your physician, who will probably first perform a pelvic exam to locate pain, tenderness, or a mass in the abdomen. Your physician will also use an ultrasound to determine whether the uterus contains a developing fetus.

Can I get pregnant again after an ectopic pregnancy?

Most people who have an ectopic pregnancy can have healthy pregnancies in the future, depending on the treatment you had and the condition of your fallopian tubes. The chances of having a successful pregnancy after an ectopic pregnancy may be reduced, but this will depend on why the pregnancy was ectopic and your medical history. If the fallopian tubes have been left in place, you have approximately a 60% chance of having a successful pregnancy in the future. Most women who have ectopic pregnancies go on to have other, healthy pregnancies. If one fallopian tube was injured or removed, an egg can be fertilized in the other tube before entering the uterus. If both fallopian tubes were injured or removed, in vitro fertilization might be an option. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, youre more likely to get another one in the future.

If you choose to conceive again, seek your doctor's advice. Early blood tests and ultrasound imaging can offer prompt detection of another ectopic pregnancy or reassurance that the pregnancy is developing normally.

Ectopic pregnancy cannot always be prevented, but a woman can reduce her risk by protecting herself against sexually transmitted infections through safer sex practices and ensuring prompt treatment of any infections that occur. Stopping smoking will also reduce the risk. If you are pregnant and having any of the symptoms mentioned earlier it is always better to consult your physician and seek advice. Blossom Fertility and IVF Centre health team includes physicians, psychologists, embryologists, lab technicians, nurses and allied health professionals who work together to help infertile couples achieve pregnancy. A patient with Vaginal bleeding or spotting, nausea and vomiting, Sharp abdominal cramps or severe lower abdominal pain on one side of the body or with any other complains is immediately treated and all efforts are taken to save pregnancy and no further damage is being done to fallopian tubes and fertility.

For more information on getting safe pregnancy after an ectopic pregnancy get in touch with our experts today for help or Call us on +91 99799 46222 or email at or visit our website

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How to control your anxiety???
What to do to control your Anxiety:

- Notice how it is affecting you and pay attention to how you would rather be feeling.
- Remember to breathe.
- Focus on something interesting and engaging, a hobby, a project, a conversation with a friend.
- Play with a pet or children, Play a sport.
- Stay active in your life. Continue going to work and/or school.
- Take care of the children.
- Keep your house clean.
- Take care of your personal hygiene.
- Surround yourself with people who care about you.
- Engage in conversation that is interesting and meaningful.
- At other times, engage in trivial talk.
- Try to limit discussion about the anxiety to less than 5% of your conversation.
- Pay attention to whether what you are doing or thinking is what you want to be doing or thinking.

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Ameloblastic Fibrodentinoma - A Case Report
Author: Mamatha NS, Rohit S, R Narahari* and Brijesh Byrappa

The Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma (AFD) is a minor variation of an Ameloblastic fibroodontoma with a predominant dentin formation. It is a rare mixed odontogenic tumour composed of neoplastic odontogenic epithelium and mesenchyme with dentin. This paper presents a rare case of Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma in the anterior mandible, which was excised and post-operative recovery was uneventful.

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Physical Therapy for Low Back Pain Relief
The goals of physical therapy are to decrease back pain, increase function, and teach the patient a maintenance program to prevent future back problems.
Common forms of physical therapy include:
1.Passive physical therapy (modalities), which includes things done to the patient, such as heat application, ice packs and electrical stimulation. For example, a heating pad may be applied to warm up the muscles prior to doing exercising and stretching, and an ice pack may be used afterwards to sooth the muscles and soft tissues.
2.Active physical therapy, which focuses on specific exercises and stretching. For most low back pain treatments, active exercise is the focus of the physical therapy program.
Exercise Benefits for Low Back Pain:
Lumbar spine (low back) stability is largely dependent on the supporting abdominal (stomach) and low back musculature. The abdominal muscles provide the initial stabilizing support through their ability to generate pressure within the abdomen which is exerted posteriorly on the spine, thus providing an anterior support column (from the front of the spine). The low back muscles stabilize the spine from the back and lead to posterior support. The bony spine and discs are surrounded by muscles, and the stronger these specific muscles are, the less stress is placed on the discs and joints of the spine. The patients should develop a 'belt' of muscle around their spine.
Key Aspects:
In this section, we have briefly listed the key aspects of the role of physiotherapy in management of lower back pain.
1.Advice and early activity There is significant evidence to prove that encouraging early movement in case of lower back pain is one of the most significant aspects of treatment in this condition.
2. Mobilization or Manipulative physiotherapy This aspect concentrates on promoting mobilization of the specific affected area. The approach of manipulative physiotherapy is used to target the specific point of pain for the purpose.
3. Specific stabilization exercises In this aspect of physiotherapy, stress is laid on improving the strength and stability of the muscles which have been weakened due to the lower back pain.
4. General exercises and stretches A series of properly structured exercises and stretches are usually carried out in context of the patients individual condition and cause of the lower back pain.
5. Ergonomic advice Since work-related hazards account for more than 65% of lower back problems, physiotherapists also concentrate on providing accurate ergonomic device, guiding the patient on using the appropriate infrastructure at work to avoid and cure lower back pain.
6. Postural guidelines This aspect of physiotherapy focuses on guiding the patient about the correct postural habits and ways to maintain accurate posture to avoid lower back pain.
Contact your Physiotherapist for more detailed and case specific treatment.

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Nocturnal enuresis commonly called bedwetting or sleepwetting is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs. Nocturnal enuresis is considered primary (PNE) when a child has not yet had a prolonged period of being the cry. Secondary nocturnal enuresis(SNE) is when a child or adult beings wetting again after having stayed dry.

Most bedwetting is a developmental delay, not an emotional problem or physical illness. Only a small percentage(5% to 10%) or bedwetting cases are caused by specific medical situations bedwetting is frequently associated with a family history of the condition.

Bedwetting children and adults can suffer emotional stress or psychological injury if they feel shamed by the condition. Treatment guidelines recommend that the physician counsel the parents, warning about psychological damage caused by pressure, shaming, or punishment for a condition children cannot control. Bedwetting is the most common childhood complaint. Most girls stay dry by age six and most boys stay dry by age seven. By ten years old 95% of children are dry at night. Studies place adult bedwetting rates at between 0.5% to 2.3%.

The bladder is a muscular receptacle, or holding container, for urine. It expands as urine enters and then contracts to push the urine out. In a person with normal bladder control, nerves in the bladder wall send a message to the brain when the bladder is full, the brain then sends a message back to the bladder to keep it from automatically emptying until the person is ready to go to the bathroom. But people with nocturnal enuresis have a problem that causes them to urine involuntarily at night.

What causes Enuresis?

They do have some theories though, on what may contribute to someone developing the condition:

Hormonal Problems:

A hormonal called antidiuretic hormone, or ADH, causes the body to produce less urine at night. But some people's bodies don't make enough ADH, which means their bodies may produce too much urine while they're sleeping.

Bladder problems:

In some people with enuresis, too many muscle spasms can prevent the bladder from holding a normal amount of urine. Some teens and adults also have relatively small bladders that can't hold a large volume of urine.


Teens with enuresis often have a parent who had the same problem at about the same age. A scientist has identified specific genes that cause enuresis.

Sleep problems:

Some teens may sleep so deeply that they don't wake up when they need to urine.


using caffeine causes a person to urinate urine more.

Medical conditions:

medical conditions that can trigger secondary enuresis include diabetes, urinary tract abnormalities (problems with the structure of a person's urinary tract), constipation, and urinary tract infections. Spinal cord trauma, such as severe stretching of the spinal cord resulting from a fall, sports injury, auto accident, or another event may also play a role in enuresis, although this is rare.

Psychological problems:

Some experts believe that stress can be associated with enuresis. It's not uncommon to feel stressed out during the teenage years, and things such as divorce, the death of a friend or family member, a move to a new town and adapting to a new school and social environment, or family tension can feel overwhelming.

Doctors don't know exactly why, but more than twice as many guys as girls have enuresis. It is often seen in combination with ADHD.

Classification of bedwetting:

Primary nocturnal enuresis:

Primary nocturnal enuresis is the most common form of bedwetting. Bedwetting counts as a disorder once a child is old enough to stay dry, but continues either to average at least two wet nights a week with no long periods of dryness or to not sleep dry without being taken to the toilet by another person.

Secondary nocturnal enuresis:

Secondary enuresis occurs after the patient goes through an extended period of dryness at night (roughly six months or more) and then reverts to nighttime wetting. Secondary enuresis can be caused by emotional stress or a medical condition, such as bladder infection.

Psychological definition:

Psychological may use a definition from the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-IV defining nocturnal enuresis as report urination into bed or clothes, occurring per week or more for at least three consecutive months in a child at least years of age and not due to either a drug side effect or a medical condition. Even if the case does not meet these criteria, the DSM-IV definition allows psychologists to diagnose nocturnal enuresis if the wetting causes the patient clinically significant distress.

The homeopathic remedy for Nocturnal enuresis:


Is useful when involuntary urination is worse in winter and better in summer. It is also for children who tend to wet their pants when they cough or sneeze or even laugh.


Is very beneficial in the case where along with the bedwetting problem child depicts symptoms of worm manifestations irritation of the nose, causing constant symptoms desire to pick, or press into it, extreme ill humor, heightened irritability and most commonly gritting teeth during sleep.


It is found to be an excellent remedy for bed wetting in children. Its action is mainly on the urinary bladder. Painful urination. Constant nocturnal bedwetting. The urine looks cloudy. Enuresis with dreams and nightmares.


Enuresis in the first part of the night with dreams as if urinating in the urinals. Otherwise also must hurry when the desire comes or the urine escapes. It is especially useful in heavy sleepers who wet the bed in the first sleep.


The child needing this homeopathic remedy has involuntary urination during sleep during which he or she may pass enormous quantities of clear urine. They can also have red sand in their urine. The typical lycopodium patient craves sweets, likes hot drinks and has aggravations from 4-8 pm fo many complaints.


Nocturnal enuresis a general remedy.


The child requiring this remedy often suffers from urine discharges that are involuntary. The urine can dribble while sitting or walking and at night in bed (according to the older authors particular in young girls). The typical child needing the homeopathic remedy Pulsatilla is often changeable and fickle and can be a bit weepy. They tend to love fuss and company.


Use it when the well-selected remedies fail to act. Bedwetting of psoric patients. Wets the bed especially during full moon.

Secale cor:

Enuresis in old people due to enlargement of prostate glands.


Enuresis in sickly girls during the first sleep. Urine is very offensive.

Verbascum thaps:

Nocturnal enuresis of long standing.

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Surgical Management of Infected Radicular Cyst Using Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF), Synthetic Bone Graft and Periodontal Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration: A Case report
Author: Dr. Brijesh Byrappa, Dr. Narahari Ranganatha, Dr. Mohammed Yunus, Dr. Ragesh Raman, Dr. Mamatha, N.S., Dr. Arun, K.P.

Radicular cysts are most common asymptomatic lesions of the jaw, it comprises up to 68% of cysts in the region. Large cyst of the jaw necessitate surgical management to obtain bone regeneration and healing of periapical tissues. Use of patients own blood components such as platelet rich fibrin (PRF) to enhance healing is unique concept in oral surgery. Through this case report we would like to illustrate the effectiveness of PRF mixed with synthetic bone substitute for guided bone regeneration in bone defect resulting from a periapical cyst enucleation. The treatment outcome of this case report shows that a combination of synthetic bone graft and PRF is successful in accelerating the physiological healing.

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Clinical application of diode laser in gingival hyperpigmentation to enhance aesthetics
Author: Dr. Brijesh Byrappa, Dr. Zainab Abubaker, Dr. Swathi Mani, Dr. Narahari Ranganatha and Dr. Mohammed Yunus

Patients are highly inclined towards aesthetic outlook in the recent years. More number of patients visit dental offices with the complaint of greyish-black gums. The core reason for this pigmentation of the gingiva is due to the melanoblastic activity. There are wide range of treatment options for depigmentation of the gingiva. They include scalpel gingivectomy, free gingival graft, bur abrasion, use of chemicals, electrosurgery, cryosurgery and lasers. Among the various techniques, lasers provide promising therapeutic option as they are simple, painless, effective and a reliable tool. Here, we report gingival depigmentation of a patient using diode laser technique.

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Causes Of Hair Fall And Homeopathic Remedies For It!
Hair fall also known as alopecia is a problem encountered by millions of men and women worldwide. Hair fall can be a very distressing problem and can make you feel depressed. Hair fall may happen due to several reasons. Finding out the root cause of your hair fall will help you to deal with your problem more efficiently. Following are some causes that could be the reason for your hair fall:

For some people hair fall may be a hereditary problem.
Hormonal imbalance may at times lead to hair fall.
Stress can be a leading cause of hair loss.
Frequent use of hair styling tools may cause your hair to fall rapidly.
Consuming steroids like birth control pills very often may result in uncontrolled hair fall.
A diet with insufficient amount of protein can trigger hair fall.
But there is no reason for you to be disheartened, because there are many treatments available for controlling hair fall. Homeopathy offers promising remedies for reducing hair fall.

Some of the treatment methods are mentioned below:

If your hair fall is due to scalp diseases like dandruff or eczema then your homeopathic physician may recommend you medicines like Psorinum.
Your doctor may recommend you medicines like Pulsatilla or Sepia Officinalis, if hair loss happens due to childbirth or after menopause.
If hair fall is due to alopecia then your doctor may recommend you medicines like Calcrea Carbonica.
Homeopathic medicines like Fluoric acid are used for growing back your hair if bald spots appear on your scalp due to hair fall.
Medicines like Lycopodium are used for growing back your hair in case of complete baldness.
Silicea is a common homeopathic medicine prescribed for hair fall in case of young people.
Hair fall must not be ignored. You may consider consulting a homeopathic doctor if your hair is falling at an alarming rate.

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Kidney Cyst - How Homeopathy Can Help?
A cyst that grows on the surface of the kidneys or inside the kidneys is known as a kidney cyst or a renal cyst. These cysts can be described as fluid-filled sacs that cause the kidneys to be enlarged and reduce their functioning capacity.

Symptoms of Polycystic Kidney Disease

Dull aching in loins.
Vague abdominal pain.
Frequent urination.

Anaemia: moderate to severe.
Blood pressure: raised.
On palpation abdomen
Enlarged irregular kidneys.
Large knobby renal masses.
Enlarged polycystic liver (50% cases).
If not addressed in time, renal cysts can lead to kidney failure and hence be fatal. Thankfully, with homoeopathy, you can treat these cysts with negligible side effects. Some of the most well-known homoeopathic remedies for renal cysts are:

Apis mellifica: This homoeopathic remedy is often prescribed for acute forms of renal cysts. In such cases, the patient usually experiences swelling of the face, hands and feet, headaches and back pain. They may also experience a dull pain in the kidneys and have scanty urine. A study of the urine typically reveals high amounts of albumen along with blood corpuscles. The patient may also complain of a feeling of suffocation.
Arsenicum: Arsenicum is a common remedy for Kidney cysts. It is especially effective in cases where the cysts cause a waxen appearance, paleness, excessive thirst, diarrhoea and dropsy. Patients who benefit from arsenicum typically have dark urine with high amounts of albumen. They may also complain of dyspnoea attacks that are aggravated by lying down and relieved by expectorating mucus.
Phosphorus: Characteristic symptoms of kidney cysts that can be treated with phosphorus include tiredness and muscle pain all over the body, increased drowsiness and having very cold hands and feet. Unlike other ailments in this case the patient usually feels most tired on waking up. He may also complain of internal body heat without having an urge to drink water. Forgetfulness, giddiness and headaches are other symptoms that can be addressed by phosphorus. He may also find it difficult to lie on his side and complain of nausea and vomiting.
Digitalis: Kidney cysts that are accompanied by cardiovascular symptoms such as a feeble pulse can be treated with this homoeopathic remedy. It can also be sued to address dark and scanty urine, rheumatic pains, weak circulation and faintness of the stomach.
Other homoeopathic remedies for kidney cysts include belladonna, plumbum, glonoine, apocynum and cantharis. Homoeopathy addresses the body as a whole and not just the symptoms presented and hence is considered a holistic form of treatment. It is also favoured by many since it has negligible side effects. However, that should not imply that homoeopathy is safe to self-medicate with. With homoeopathy, what works for one person may not work for another, Hence. if you begin experiencing pain in your kidneys or any of the other symptoms associated with this condition, you must consult a homoeopathic doctor to get the right medication.

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